GARBE, Richard Karl (von). Bredow bei Stettin 9.3.1857 — Tübingen 22.9. 1927. German Indologist. Professor in Tübingen. Son of Gustav G., a factory owner, and Eugenie Konopka. In gymnasium in Stettin he had Grassmann among his teachers. Studies at Tübingen, soon switched from law to Sanskrit (Roth). Ph.D. there 1876, then manuscript studies in London (Śrautasūtra). From 1878 PD at Königsberg, from 1880 ao. Professor, 1894 ord. In 1885-87 in India, studied one year philosophy under Pandits in Varanasi, also visited Sri Lanka and collected manuscripts. In 1895 succeeded Roth at Tübingen, where he taught almost until his death (succeeded by Hauer). In 1887 married Anna Wichert, one son (d. in the war), two daughters. Last years suffered of ill health. In 1909 Württ. Personaladel, but never himself used the “von”.

RG was among the first Indologists concentrating on Indian philosophy (especially Sāṁkhya) with some competence. Critic of Deussen. He began as a Vedic scholar and was also interested in cultural history, but as a typical representant of the old school he hated modern India (clearly see in he prejudiced travel book). In his evolutionistic theory of cultural development he emphasized the importance of Kṣatriyas (with rationalistic ideas against Brahman mysticism) and criticized romantic ideas. Well-known, although hardly succesful, was his attempt to reconstruct a theistic proto-Bhagavadgītā, but its criticism promoted much the study of this text. Important was also his study of India and Christianity. Among his students were Hauer and Wecker.

Publications: Diss. (not in Janert) “Das accentuationssystem des altindischen nominalcompositiums”, KZ 23, 1877, 470-518.

Vaitānaśrautasūtra. 8+119 p. L. 1878 (edition); transl. Vaitāna Sūtra, das Ritual des Atharvaveda. 116 p. Strassburg 1878 (hab. diss.).

Edited The Srauta Sūtra of Apastamba belonging to the Taittirīya Samhitā, with the commentary of Rudradatta. 1-3. 470+699+498 p. B.I. 92. Calcutta 1881-1902.

– “Die Pravargja-Ceremonie nach den Âpastamba-Çrauta-Sūtra”, ZDMG 34, 1880, 319-370.

Die indischen Mineralien, ihre Namen und die ihnen zugeschriebenen Kräfte. Narahari’s Rājanighaṇṭu, Varga XIII. 114 p. Lp. 1882 (ed. and translated).

– “Die Theorie der indischen Rationalisten von den Erkenntnismitteln”, Ber. Verh. S. Ges. Wiss. 40, 1883, 1-30 (with transl. of the Sāṁkhyatattvakaumudī 4-7).

The Sâmkhya Sûtra Vritti or Aniruddha’s commentary and the original parts of Vedântin Mahâdeva’s commentary to the Sâmkhya Sûtras. 9+342 p. Bibl. Ind. Calcutta 1888.

Translated Vijñānabhikṣu: Sāṁkhya-pravacana-bhāṣya, Commentar zu den Sānkhya-Sūtras. 386 p. A.K.M. 9:3. Lp. 1889; edited Vijñānabhikṣu: Sāṁkhya-pravacana-bhāṣya, or commentary on the exposition of the Sānkhya philosophy. 210 p. H.O.S. 2. Cambridge, Mass. 1895.

Indische Reiseskizzen. B. 1889, 2nd ed. 16+210 p. 38 ill. München 1925.

Translated “Der Mondschein der Sâṁkhya-Wahrheit. Vâcaspatimiçras Sâṁkhya-tattva-kaumudî”, ABaAW 19:3, 1892, 517-628.

Die Sâṁkhya-Philosophie. 8+347 p. Lp. 1894, 2nd rev, ed. 12+412 p. Lp. 1917; Sâṁkhya und Yoga. 54 p. Grundriss III:4. Strassburg 1896.

Edited (as facs.) with M. Bloomfield: The Kashmirian Atharva-Veda. 1-3. 1901.

Beiträge zur indischen Kulturgeschichte. 3+268 p. B. 1903 (popular articles).

Die Bhagavadgîtâ. Aus dem Sanskrit übers., mit einer Einleitung über ihre ursprüngliche Gestalt, ihre Leben und ihr Alter. 159 p. Lp. 1905, 2nd ed. 1921.

Kaiser Akbar von Indien. Ein Lebens und Kulturbild aus dem 16. Jahrhundert. 48 p. Tübingen 1909.

Indien und das Christentum. 302 p. Tübingen 1914, English transl. 1959.

Sources: H. Hoffmann, N.D.B. 6, 1964, 69; A. Malinar in Brückner et al., Indienforschung im Zeiten­wandel. 2003, 121-143; Stache-Rosen 1990, 133-135; Stache-Weiske 2017, 521; *H. Weller, Schwäb. Merkur 1927, no. 442 & 446; *R. Zimmermann, ABORI 9, 1927-28, 339´342; Festgabe R. von Garbe. 1927; briefly in D.B.E. 3, 1996, 573; German Wikipedia with photo; another photo in Rau 71, still another in Sardesai.