GLADWIN, Francis. 1745? — 1812/13. British Colonial Officer and Orientalist (Persian Scholar) in India. Served in the Bengal Army at least 30 years, until his death. He was encouraged by Warren Hastings in his study of Oriental languages, mainly worked on Persian literature. From 1801 he was the first Professor of Persian at College of Fort William, 1802 Collector of Customs in Patna, from 1808 Commissary Resident in Patna. His dictionary was based on Richardson’s (omitting the Arabic part) and his Religious Ceremonies was picked from Barthlemy d’Herbelot’s encyclopedia. According to Keene he “was not a great scholar, but displayed singular ardour and devotion”.
Apparently the exact years of his birth and death are not preserved. Fro birth 1745 is common, but also 1744 appears. For death, the most give 1812, but some also 1813 (often with “?”). On this Keene notes that his estate was administered to in 1813.
Publications: A compendious Vocabulary, English and Persian: including all the Oriental simples in the materia medica, employed in modern practice: with tables subjoined of the successions of the khaliffs, and of the kings of Persia and Hindostan. 178 p. Calcutta 1780.
– A number of translations of Persian literature, including a portion of Abul Fazl’s Ayeen Akbery, or the Institutes of the Emperor Akber. 1-3. L. 1783-86, new ed. 1-2. L. 1800; The Pundnameh. A Compendium of Ethics. Calcutta 1788, new ed. in his Persian Moonshee. Calcutta 1795 (The Pandnāme of Aṭṭār, by Gl. ascribed to Sa‘dī), 3rd ed. of the Moonshee. 1-2. Calcutta 1800; The Gûlistân of Sady. 1-2. Calcutta 1806 (with text); Neṣāb-e tajnis al-loḡāt as Resemblances Linear and Verbal, a Philological Poem of Jami. 2nd ed. L. 1811.
– Transl. Ulfáz Udwiyeh or the Materia Medica, in the Arabic, Persian, and Hindevy Languages. Calcutta 1793 (by Moḥammad ʿAbd-Allāh Širāzi).
– A Dictionary of Religious Ceremonies of the Eastern Nations. Calcutta 1787
– History of Hindostan: during the reigns of Jehángír, Sháhjehán, and Aurungzebe. 1. 6+13+132 p. Calcutta 1788, The History of Jahangir. Ed. with notes by K. V. Rangaswami Aiyangar. 23+184 p. Madras 1930.
– Edited Asiatick Miscellany 1-2, 1785-86 and New Asiatick Miscellany 1, 1789, himself contributed to the last: “The Dabistán or School of Manners”, 86-148 (translated with Persian text).
– Tables of the Christians and Mohammedan æras: calculated from … A.D. 622, to A.D. 1900. 47 p. Calcutta 1794.
– Putwary accounts. 130 p. Calcutta 1794; A compendious system of Bengal revenue accounts. 47+130+47 p. Calcutta 1796.
– Dissertations on the Rhetoric, Prosody and Rhyme of the Persians. 190 p. Calcutta 1801.
– The Persian Guide, Exhibiting the Arabic Derivatives. 419 p. Calcutta 1800.
– A Dictionary, Persian, Hindoostanee and English, including Synonyma. 608 p. Calcutta 1809.
– Translated Christian books into Persian.
Sources: Buckland, Dictionary; H.G. Keene, D.N.B. 21, 407; P. Loloi, Encyclop. Iranica 11:1, 2001, 9; *P.J. Marshall, Oxford D.N.B.