GOLDSTÜCKER, Theodor. Königsberg 18.1.1821 — London 6.3.1872. German Indologist in the U.K. Professor in London. Born in a Jewish family, school in Königsberg, began studies of philology there in 1836 under P. von Bohlen et al. In 1838 came to Bonn to study under v. Schlegel, Lassen and Freytag (Semitics). Ph.D. 1840 Königsberg. Went now in 1842 to Paris to study manuscripts and listen to Burnouf, in 1846 also visited London and Oxford. Then in Königsberg and in 1847-50 in Berlin, where he befriended with Weber and Kuhn. In 1850 he came to London, where he was in 1851-72 Professor of Sanskrit (unsalaried) at University College, where he had several Indian students. In 1865 founded the Sanskrit Text Society. Unmarried.
ThG was one of the foremost experts of Sanskrit, but published very little. He was mainly interested in grammatical literature and Mīmāṁsā. He was the first European, who understood the Mahābhāṣya without the assistance of Pandits. As a scholar he was a dissident criticizing the then fashionable methods and emphasizing the importance of Indian traditions and commentaries. His sharf and often unjust (especially against Böhtlingk) criticism marred his relations to many colleagues. He attacked strongly against Roth and wanted to base Rigvedic interpretation on Sāyaṇa. In London he also calumniated F. Hall, who in consequence lost his position. What was originally intended to be a new edition of Wilson, became an enormously elaborate dictionary project, of which, however, he was able to carry through only the first letter (a).
Publications: Translated: Prabodha-Chandrodaya oder die Geburt des Begriffs. Ein theologisch-philosophisches Drama von Krishna-Miçra. 25+183 p. Königsberg 1842 (anonymously published).
– “Ueber die einleitenden Verse des Amarakosha”, ZKM 7, 1850, 167-184.
– Dictionary, Sanskrit and English, extended and improved from the second edition of the Dictionary of Prof. H. H. Wilson. 6 fasc. 480 p. Berlin & L. 1856–64 (only letter a).
– Facsimile editions: Mānava-Kalpasūtra with the Commentary of Kumara-Swamin. 268+241 p. L. 1861; Mahābhāshya. 1-6. 4674 p. L. 1874 (only 50 copies printed)
– Páṇini, his place in Sanskrit literature. An investigation of some literary and chronological questions which may be settled by a study of his work. 16+268 p. L. 1861 (enormous introduction to M.-Kalpasūtra, also separately publ.).
– Edited: Jaiminīya-nyāya-mālā-vistara of Mādhava. 1-7. 12+576 p. L. 1865-67 (last parts, 6-7, by Cowell in 1878).
– On the deficiencies in the present administration of Hindu Law. 56 p. L. 1871.
– Articles in Athenaeum, Westminster Review, etc.
– Literary Remains of the Late Prof. Theodor Goldstücker. 1-2. L. 1879 (with a preface [by R. Rost]).
Sources: *N.J. Allen, Oxford D.N.B. 10, 2004; Buckland, Dictionary; *Halm, SBaAW 1872, 223-225; A. Leskien, A.D.B. 43, 1898, 341; *C. Mahler, IA 1, 1872, 132ff.; Sengupta 1996, 91-98; Stache-Rosen 1990, 56f.: Stache-Weiske 2017, 60f., 523; Windisch 246-254; *Wininger, Grosse jüdische National-Biographie. 2. Cernăuţi 1927, 494; *Athenaeum March 9, 1872; *Academy April 1, 1872; briefly D.B.E. 3, 1996, 88; Wikipedia.