HERDER, Johann Gottfried. Mohrungen, Ostpreussen 25.8.1744 — Weimar 18.12.1803. German Author, Philosopher and Scholar. Son of a precentor and teacher, studied theology at Königsberg, where Kant and Hamann inspired his thinking. In 1764-69 teacher and priest in Riga, then visited Paris and in the entourage of the Prince of Holstein Italy. From 1776 Generalsuperintendent in Weimar. Now started his literary activity as a critic, wrote soon important works on literature and history. He was a romantic, associated with Goethe and Wieland, and in the romantic way rather enthusiastic about India, without knowing much.

Publications: a great number of works, e.g. Fragmente zur deutschen Literatur. 1767; Kritische Wälder. 1769; Über den Ursprung der Sprache. 1772; Stimmen der Völker in Liedern. 1778-79; Vom Geist der ebräischen Poesie. 1782-83; Ideen zur Philosophie der Geschichte der Menschheit. 1-4. 1784-91; Briefe zur Beförderung der Humanität. 1793-97.

edited the 2nd edition of G. Forster’s German Sakontala. Frankfurt 1803; “Ueber ein morgen­ländisches Drama”, Werke zur schönen Literatur und Kunst. Stuttgart 1828, 9, 181-220(?).

collected works in 33 vols. 1877-1913.

Sources: Gildemeister, Bibl.; *Lex. gramm. 1996; Wikipedia with portrait and references.