PANDER, Eugen. Livonia 2.1.1854 — 1894. Russian (German of Livonia) Economist in China, interested in Lamaism. In 1875-77 studies at Riga Polytechnicum, then businessman, mainly in Moscow. Ph.D. (unknown, where and when). In 1881 traveled in Germany, England and France. From 1881 Professor of National Economy and Lecturer of Russian and German at the College of Foreign Science (Tongwengguan) in Peking, until c. 1889. He achieved a good collection on Lamaism, which he then sold to Museum of Ethnology in Berlin (lost in WW II).

Publications: “Geschichte des Lamaismus”, Verhandl. der Berl. Ges. für Anthropologie, Ethnologie u. Urgeschichte 1889, 199-210; “Das lamaische Pantheon”, Z. für Ethnol. 21, 1889, 44-78.

– Das Pantheon des Tschangtscha Hutuktu, ein Beitrag zur Iconographie des Lamaismus. Ed. by A. Grünwedel. 116 p. of ill. B. 1890 (by lChaṅ-skya Hutuktu Lalitavajra).

Sources: Information given by H. Walravens and kindly forwarded to me by H. Eimer in 2000; H. Eimer, “Spurensicherung”, ZASt 30, 2000, 27-51 (esp. p. 29); Walravens 2008, 170f.; *Walravens, E.P. und seine lamaistische Sammlung. Tokyo 2019.