WINDISCH, Ernst Wilhelm Oskar. Dresden 4.9.1844 (or 14.9.?) — Dresden 30.10.1918. German Indologist and Celtic Scholar. Professor in Leipzig. Son of a schoolteacher, Louis W. Windisch and Caroline Lamm.After Kreuzschule in Leipzig studiedfrom 1863 at Leipzig classics, Germanic (under Zarncke), Sanskrit (Brockhaus) and Comparative Linguistics (Curtius). Ph.D. 1867 Leipzig. PD in Sanskrit and Comparative Linguistics 1869 Leipzig. From 1868 taught classical languages at Thomas-Gymnasium. In 1869-71 further studies in London (Celtic), where he also prepared a catalogue of the philosophical manuscripts of India Office. He visited Wales and rejected a chair at Bombay University. From 1871 ao. Professor of Sanskrit at Leipzig and, after a while as ord. Professor of Sanskrit & vgl. Sprach­wissen­schaft at Heidelberg (from 1872) and of vgl. Sprachwiss. at Strassburg (1875), from 1877 until his death ord. Professor of Sanskrit at Leipzig. In 1895-96 Rector of university. Health problems since 1889. Married 1873 Berta Roscher, four sons (Hans W., Professor of Theology) and one daughter. From 1883 Member of Sächsische AW, from 1905 of Bayrische AW.

Windisch was a many-sided scholar, equally interested in Pāli, Sanskrit, Comparative IE, and Celtic, and made important results in each. In Indology his main fields were Veda and Buddhism. He was not brilliant, but an industrious and minute scholar. At the early phase of his career he was also interested in Jaina studies, but left them. In his drama studies he derived Indian drama from Attic new comedy, but had few followers in this. In IE studies he was junggrammarian. One of the pioneers of comparative syntax. Among his many students were Th. Bloch, M. Collins, Florenz, W. Foy, Gawroński, Hertel, A. Hirzel, Hohenberger,Hopkins, Hultzsch, Huth, K. Klemm, C. Krause, Lindenau, Lindner, K. E. Neumann, A. W. Ryder, de Saussure, Seidenstücker, A. Torp, and F. Weller.

Publications: Diss. De hymnis homericis majoribus. 68 p. Lp. 1867.

Hab.diss. Untersuchungen über den Ursprung des Relativpronomens in den indogermanischen Sprachen. Lp. 1869 (publ. in Studien griech. lat. Gramm. 2, 1869, 201-419).

Edited & transl. “Hemacandra’s Yogaśāstra”, ZDMG 28, 1874, 185-262, 678f.

Edited: ZDMG 34–56, 1880–92.

– “Der griechische Einfluss im indischen Drama”, 103 p. Verh. Or.kongr. 2:2, 1881, 3-106.

Edited: Zwölf Hymnen des Rigveda mit Sāyaṇa’s Commentar. 4+172 p. Lp. 1883.

Edited: Itivuttaka. 8+151 p. L., P.T.S. 1889; notes on the same in JPTS 1890, 91-108; articles on Pāli in Ber.Verh.SGW & Actes XIV C.Or.

– “Über das Drama Mṛcchakaṭikā und die Kṛṣṇalegende”, Ber. Verh. SGW 37, 1885, 439-479.

Über das Nyāyabhāṣya. 41 p. Renunziationsprogramm der Philosophischen Fakultät der Leipziger Universität für 1887/88. Lp. 1888; Über die Bedeutung des indischen Alterthums. 39 p. Lp. 1895; Die altindischen Religionsurkunden und die christliche Mission. 35 p. Lp. 1897.

– “Über den Sitz der denkenden Seele, bes. bei den Indern und Griechen”, Ber.Ver. SGW 1891, 155-203; Māra und Buddha. 348 p. ASGW 15, 1895; Buddhas Geburt und die Lehre von der Seelenwanderung. 236 p. ASGW 55, 1908.

– “Zu Kauṣītakibrāhmaṇa Upaniṣad I, 2”, Ber.Verh.SGW 59, 1907, 111-128.

Die Komposition des Mahāvastu. ASGW 57 = 27:14, 1909, 467-511.

Geschichte der Sanskrit-Philologie und indischen Altertumskunde. 1-3. 460+42 p. Grundriss & AKM 15:3. 1917-20-21.

Edited a great number of Old Irish texts and wrote articles on Celtic (about 50 items), esp. Irische Texte. 1. 1880; with Wh. Stokes, Ir. Texte. 2-5, 1884-1909; Táin bó Cúalnge, die altirische Heldensage. Lp. 1905; Das keltische Britannien. 29+302 p. ASGW 1912; Der Heliand und seine Quellen. 3+118 p. Lp. 1869; IE studies in ASGW.

Abhandlungen zur Sanskritwissenschaft und Keltologie. Gesammelte Leipziger Akademie-Schriften 1884–1913. 1360 p. 1-3. 1884-1909; K. Steiner & J. Gengnagel (edd.), Kleine Schriften. 29+718 p. Glasenapp-Stiftung 41. St. 2001.

Sources: D. Drüll, Heidelberger Gelehrtenlexikon 1803–1932. 1986; Förster & Hultzsch, ZDMG 73, 1919, 183-213; J. Hertel, Ber.Verh.SAW 73, 1921, 9*-24*; *E. Kuhn, bibliography until 1913, Festschrift Windisch. 1914; Macdonell & Flower, JRAS 1919, 183-188; *J. Mehlig, Bedeutende Gelehrte in Leipzig. Zur 800-Jahr-Feier d. Stadt Leipzig im Auftrag von rektor und Senat der Karl-Marx-Universität. Hrsg. von M. Steinmetz. 1. Leipzig 1965, 63-72; K. Mylius, WZLeipzig 28, 1979:1, 50-56; F. Neubert in McGetchin et al. 2004, 178-181; Stache-Rosen 1990, 101f.; Stache-Weiske 2017, 309-312, 570; Windisch 398-405; Wikipedia (more in German version, with photo). Photo in Rau 47, others in Sardesai and in Indology in G.D.R. 1978.