WOODWARD, Frank Lee (ps. Vanapāla). Saham Toney, Norfolk 13.4.1871 — West Tamar (Rowella), Tasmania 27.5.1952. British Indologist (Pāli Scholar) and Bauddha (Theosophist). Son of an Anglican clergyman, W. Woodward, and Elizabeth Many Ann Lee. After traditional public school in London came in the age of 18 to Cambridge (Sidney Sussex College), where he was mainly interested in classics and sport. B.A. 1893, M.A. 1902. In 1894-97 teacher of classics at Royal Grammar School in Worcester and 1895-1900 at Stamford School in Lincolnshire (where E. M. Hare was his pupil), at the same time studied Sanskrit, Pāli and philosophy. In 1902 he joined Theosophical Society and 1903 left for Ceylon as Principal of the Theosophical Mahinda College in Galle. Finding the climate unfavourable to his health, he moved in 1919 to Tasmania, where he spent his life cultivating apples and editing and translating Pāli texts.

Woodward was both a scholar and personally engaged in Buddhism. He worked 16 years without salary as the Principal of the Mahinda College and donated 2000 pounds from his inheritance to the College. He was a sworn bachelor and vegetarian and spent all his holidays in Ceylon. His name he translated into Sinhalese Vanapāla (as Wood-ward).

Publications: Translated: Manual of Mystic being a translation  fromthe  Pāli & Sinhalese Work entitled The  Yogāvachara’s Manual. L., P.T.S. 1916 (P.T.S. Transl. series 6); The Buddha’s Path of Virtue. A translation of the Dhammapada. 22+96 p. Madras – L. 1921, 2nd ed. Adyar 1929; Some Sayings of the Buddha. 11+356 p. L. 1925, 2nd ed. L. 1939; Udāna (Verses of Uplift) and Itivuttaka (As it was said). Minor Anthologies 2. S.B.B. 8. L. 1935.

Edited: Buddhaghosa: Sārattha-Ppakāsinī. Commentary on the Samyutta-Nikāya. 1-3. 1929-32-??, repr. P.T.S. Text Ser. 118-120. L. 1977; Dhammapāla: Paramattha-Dīpanī. Udānaṭṭhakathā (Udāna Commentary). L. 1926 (P.T.S. Text ser. 143); Dhammapāla: Paramattha-Dīpanī. Theragāthā-Aṭṭhakathā. 1-3. L. 1940-52-56 (P.T.S. Text ser. 134-136).

Translated with C. A. F. Rhys Davids: Samyutta Nikāya. The book of the kindred sayings or grouped suttas. 1-5. L. 1917-30 (P.T.S. Transl. series 7, 10, 13, 14, 16; 3-5 by F.L.W.).

Translated with E. M. Hare: Aṅguttara-nikāya. The book of gradual sayings. 1-5. P.T.S. Transl. Ser. 22, 24-27. L. 1932-36 (1-3 & 5 by F.L.W.).

Pali Tipiṭakam concordance. Listed by F. L. Woodward, E. M. Hare et al., arranged and edited by I. Fiser, A. K. Warder, K. R. Norman a.o. 1-3:6. L. 1952-84.

– Some lesser works.

Sources: N. Heyward, Austr. Dict. Biogr. 1990 with photo (online); Peiris, Buddhism 41-44 with photo; P. Croucher, Buddhism in Australia. 1989, 21-23 (quoted in Payer’s Web-Materialien 16); Wikipedia with photo.