SCHLUMBERGER, Daniel Théodore. Mulhouse, Alsace (then Mühlhausen in German Elsaß) 19.12.1904 — Princeton, NJ 20/21.10.1972. French (Alsatian) Archaeologist of Afghanistan. Son of a protestant factory owner, Paul Schl., abd Elisabeth Schoen, nephew of the Oriental scholar Paul Perdrizet (1870–1938). After school in Mulhouse studied from 1922 history and geography at Strasbourg (licence 1925), then in Paris (dipl. 1927) where he became student of René Dussaud and Henri Seyrig. In 1925 participated in his uncle’s excavations in Mesopotamia. In 1929-40 Inspector (under Seyrig) in Service des antiquités, Haut-Commissariat de la France au Levant, making surveys in Syria and Libanon and conducting excavations at Palmyra (1933-35) and Qasr el-Heir (1936-39). During the war served as Lieutenant and staff interpreter in Syria, then political commentator in Brazzaville Radio of France-Libre and director of Information Office in Beirut. In 1945 succeeded Ghirshman as director of D.A.F.A., until 1964. In Afghanistan conducted excavations at Balkh (1947-48, 1955-56) and Surkh-Kotal (1952-63; both of Kūshān period), at Lashkar-i Bazar (1948-51; Ghaznavid), and started at Ai-Khanum (1964; Graeco-Bactrian). Ph.D. 1950 Paris (diss. on his Palmyran excavations in the 1930s, second diss. on Bactrian numismatics). From 1955 Professor of Byzantine and Near Eastern (l’Orient méditerranéen) History at Strasbourg, now dividing his time between Afghanistan and Alsace. Correspondant from 1955 and Dussaud’s successor 1958 in A.I.B.L. In 1967 succeeded Seyrig in charge of Institut Français d’Archéologie in Beirut. Died of heart attack during a journey to the U.S.A. Married, two daughters and three sons.

Both in Syria and in Afghanistan Schlumberger made important archaeological finds. Among other things Surkh Kotal revealed the first traces of the Bactrian language. In the then heated discussion about the origin of Gandhāra art he rightly derived from Graeco-Bactrian tradition.

Publications: Much on Syrian archaeology and on Islamic Afghanistan.

– “Rapport sur une mission en Afghanistan”, CRAI 1946, 169-177; “La prospection archéologique de Bactres”, CRAI 1947, 38-41 & Syria 26, 1949, 173-190.

Articles on the temple of Surkh Kotal in JA 1952-55, CRAI 1953-63, Archeology 1953-55, Arts as. 1, 1954, 132-138, Antiquity 1959, Afghanistan 1960, PrBrAcad 47, 1961, 77-95, pl. i-xxiv; on Ai Khanum in CRAI 1965; on Greek and Aramaic inscriptions of Aśoka in JA 1958, 1966, CRAI 1964, 126-140, 1970, 1972; further articles.

With R. Curiel: Le trésor monétaire d’Afghanistan. 5+131 p. 16 pl. M.D.A.F.A. 14. P. 1953 (by D.Schl. “L’argent grec dans l’empire achéménide”, 1-64).

 “Les traits originaux de l’histoire de l’Afghanistan”, Afghanistan 1961; “Descendants non-méditerranéens de l’art grec”, Syria 37, 1960, 131-166, 253-318 and sep. Inst. Fr. d’arch. de Beyrouth. Publ. hors série 10 100 p.; L’Orient hellenisé, l’art grec et ses héritiers dans l’Asie non-méditerranéenne. 247 p. P. 1970.

With B. Dagens & M. Le Berre: Monuments préislamiques d’Afghanistan. 104 p. 45 pl. M.D.A.F.A. 19. P. 1964  (D.Schl. & M.L.B.: “Observations sur les remparts de Bactres”, 59-105).

– “De la pensée grec à la pensée bouddhique”, CRAI 1972, 188–199.

With M. Le Berre & G. Fussman: Surkh Kotal en Bactriane. 1. Les Temples: architecture, sculpture, inscriptions. 1-2. 160 p. 72+61 pl. M.D.A.F.A. 25. P. 1983.

Sources: P. Amandry, CRAI 122, 1978, 482-497 with photo; G. Fussman, BEFEO 60, 1973, 411-417 & bibliography, 418-422; F. Olivier-Utard, D.O.L.F. 877f.; J. Starcky, JA 260, 1972, 223-233; French Wikipédia; photo in CRAI 1978.