CHAVANNES, Emanuel-Édouard

CHAVANNES, Emanuel-Édouard. Lyon 5.10.1865 — Paris 29.1.1918. French Sinologist and Buddhist Scholar. Born in a Protestant family, son of Emile Ch., an engineer, and Blanche Dapples. Educated in Lausanne, Lyon and Paris (Lycée Louis-le-Grand). In 1885-88 studies at École normale supérieure. Now began Chinese studies, advised by Cordier. In China from 1889 to 1893 studying and working at French embassy. From 1893 Professor of Chinese at Collège de France, until his death (succeeded by H. Maspéro). Also a directeur d’études honoraire at É.P.H.É. From 1903 member of A.I.B.L. In 1907-08 conducted an archaeological expedition to China. Married 1891 (on furlough in France) Alice Dor, two daughters and one son.

He re-established the French Sinological tradition after the interval following Julien’s death. One of the pioneers of Chinese archaeology and epigraphy. He studied Chinese Buddhism and the accounts of Chinese pilgrims to India and was interested in Central Asian history. Among his students were Demiéville, M. Granet, H. Maspéro, and Pelliot.

Publications: “Le Traité sur les sacrifices Fong et Chan de Se-ma Ts’ien”, translated, J. of the Peking Oriental Soc. 1890, 31+95 p.; Mémoires historiques de Se-ma Ts’ien traduits et annotés. 1-5. P. 1895-1905 (chapters 1-47); La sculpture sur pierre en Chine au temps des deux dynasties Han. 40+88 p. 44 pl. P. 1893; Mission archéologique dans la Chine septentrionale. Atlas. P.E.F.E.O. 13. P. 1909; La sculpture à l’époque des Han. Mission arch. 1:1. P. 1913; with R. Petrucci: La peinture chinois au Musee Cernuschi. 98 p. P. 1914.

– “Les inscriptions chinoises de Bodh-Gayâ”, RHR 34, 1896, 1-58; “Le Nestorianisme et l’inscription de Kara-Balgassoun”, JA 9:9, 1897, 43-85; “Les inscriptions chinoises de l’Asie centrale d’après les espampages de M. Ch.-E. Bonin”, MAIBL Mém. étr. 11:2, 1904, 193-295, 6 pl.; Les documents chinois découverts par Aurel Stein dans les sables du Turkistan oriental. Oxford 1913; a great number of articles, also on epigraphy in JA, BEFEO, TP, etc.

Mémoire composé à l’époque de la grande dynastie T‘ang Sun sur les religieux éminents qui allèrent cherché la loi dans les pays d’occident par I-Tsing. P. 1894.

Translations of Buddhist itineraries and other Buddhist texts: Wu K‘ung, JA 1895 (with S. Lévi); Song Yun, BEFEO 1903; Guṇavarman, TP 1904; Jinagupta, TP 1905; Seng Hui, TP 1909.

Documents sur les Tou-kiue (Turcs) occidentaux. 4+378 p. St.Petersburg 1903, with “Notes additionelles sur les Tou-kiue”, TP 5, 1904, 1-110; Les documents chinois découverts par A. Stein dans les sables du Turkestan oriental. 1913.

– “Les pays d’Occident d’après le Heou Han chou”, TP 8, 1907, 149-234.

Cinq cents contes et apologues extraits du Tripiṭaka chinois. 1-3. P. 1910-11, 4. P. 1934 (cf. Actes du XIVe CO 1906, 84-145).

With P. Pelliot: “Un traité manichéen retrouvé en Chine,” JA 10:18, 1911, 499-617; 10:20, 1913, 99-199, 261-392 (as book P. 1913).

Six monuments de la sculpture chinoise. 40 p. Ars Asiatica 2. P. 1914 (Buddhist); La sculpture bouddhique. Pp. 291-614. ill. Mission arch. 1:2. P. 1915.

Sources: *V. Bartol’d & S. Ol’denburg, IzvRossAN 6:12, 1918:16 (Mél. as. 1918), 1767-1782; *H. Cordier, TP 18, 1917, 114-147; *Cordier, JA 11:11, 1918, 197-248 (with full bibliography); *Cordier, JS 1918, 101-104; C. Diény, D.O.L.F. 206f.; *R. Dussaud, “Notice sur la vie et les travaux de M.É.C.”, CRAI 1946, 635-647; B. Laufer, JAOS 38, 1918, 202-205; *L. La Vallée Poussin, BSOS 1, 1918, 147-151; *H. Maspéro, TP 21, 1922, 43-56; *Pelliot, Lévi et al., Bull. archéol. du Musée Guimet 1, 1921; N. Péri, BEFEO 18, 1918, 73-75; *A. Spruyt, “Reminiscenses of the Éd. Ch. Expedition”, AL N.S. 5, 1931, 103-110; W. Sundermann, Encyclop. Iranica 5, 1991, 389-391 (online); *D.B.F. 8, 1959, 941f.; Wikipedia with 3 photos. Photo in Brill’s Catalogue 1937.

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