GRAUL, Karl Friedrich Leberecht

GRAUL, Karl Friedrich Leberecht. Wörlitz bei Dessau 6.2.1814 — Erlangen 10.11.1864. German Indologist (Tamil Scholar) and Lutheran Missionary. Son of a weaver, educated at gymnasium in Zerbst and Dessau. From 1834 studies of theology at Leipzig, then visited Italy as a tutor in an English family. In 1842 returned to Dessau and married. In 1844 moved to Dresden, then to Leipzig, where he was director of the ev.-luth. Missions-Anstalt until 1860. In 1849-53 travelled 30 months in India (mainly in the South) inspecting mission. Knowing already Sanskrit, he now learnt Tamil (both spoken and the literary high style) on the spot. In 1861 he came to Erlangen University to teach Missionswissenschaft, but soon became ill.

KG was a pioneer of Tamil philology in Europe. His bulky travel book concentrates much on missionary questions, but in order to make mission succesful he found important to know well popular culture of the country. This was dealt with in parts 4 and 5. He collected a library of Tamil MSS. in Leipzig (still there in 1989), published and translated much of it. He had intended many further volumes for his Bibl. Tam. and worked still on it during his last illness.

Publications: translated Dante Alighieri’s Göttliche Komödie. 1. Lp. 1843.

Reise nach Ostindien. 1-5. Lp. 1854-56.

– “Tamulische Bibliothek”, ZDMG 7-8, 185?.

Bibliotheca Tamulica sive opera praecipua Tamuliensium. 1. Tamulische Schriften zur Erläuterung des Vedanta-Systems oder der rechtgläubigen Philosophie der Hindus. Lp. 1854 (Kaivaljanavanîta, Pañcadaśapakaram tr. in German, and the Sanskrit Âtma Bôda Prakâśika, ed. & tr.); 2. Kaivaljanavanîta, Tamil & English, with glossary. Lp. & L. 1855; 3. Tirukkural, Deutsch mit Anm. Lp. 1856; 4. Tirukkural, text, vulgar Tamil version and a literal Latin transl. Lp. 1865.

Outline of Tamil Grammar. Lp. & Oxford 1855.

Indische Sinnpflanzen und Blumen. Erlangen 1864.

edited Hallische Missionsnachrichte from 1854.

Sources: Gosche, Wiss. Jahresber. zu ZDMG 1862-67, 67f.; *G. Hermann, Dr. Karl Graul und seine Bedeutung für die lutherische Mission. 6+23 p. Missionsnachrichten der Ostindischen Missions­anstalt in Halle 18. Halle 1867; *W. Hosäus, A.D.B. 9, 1879, 604f.; V. Klahre, “Karl Graul (1814-1864) — Dravidologe und Missionar”, Asien, Afrika, Lateinamerika 17, 1989, 58-65; *S. Krügel, Hundert Jahre Graul-Interpretation. Diss. Halle 1963; A. Leumann, “Ein deutscher Dravidologe des 19. Jahrhunderts”, WZHalle 13:9/10, 1964, 605-612 (same in English, TC 11, 1964, 209-225); *A. Lehmann, N.D.B. 7, 1966, 8; *Luthardt, Herzogs Theol. Realenz. 19 (Suppl. 1), 1865, 578-584; briefly D.B.E. 4, 1996, 124; Wikipedia (German version with portrait).

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