GRAUL, Karl Friedrich Leberecht. Wörlitz bei Dessau 6.2.1814 — Erlangen 10.11.1864. German Indologist (Tamil Scholar) and Lutheran Missionary. Son of Gottfried Graul (d. 1824) a weaver, and Louise Haberkorn, educated at gymnasium in Zerbst and Dessau. From 1834 studies of theology at Leipzig, then visited Italy as a tutor in an English family. In 1842 returned to Dessau and worked as a teacher. In 1844 he moved to Dresden and soon to Leipzig, where he was director of the ev.-luth. Missions-Anstalt until 1860. In 1849-53 travelled 30 months in India (mainly in the South) inspecting mission. Knowing already Sanskrit, he now learned Tamil (both spoken and the literary high style) on the spot. In 1861 he came to Erlangen University to teach Missionswissenschaft, but soon became ill. Hon. Dr.theol. 1854 Erlangen. Married Johanna Schildhauer.

Graul was a pioneer of Tamil philology in Europe. His bulky travel book concentrates much on missionary questions, but in order to make mission succesful he found it important to know well the popular culture of the country. This was dealt with in parts 4 and 5. He collected a library of Tamil manuscripts in Leipzig (still there in 1989), and also published and translated much of it. He had intended many further volumes for his Bibliotheca Tamulica and worked still on it during his last illness.

Publications: Translated Dante Alighieri’s Göttliche Komödie. 1. Lp. 1843.

Reise nach Ostindien über Palaestina und Aegypten. 1-5. Lp. 1854-56 (vols. 3-5 on India).

– “Die tamulische Bibliothek der evang. luth. Missionsanstalt zu Leipzig”, ZDMG 7, 1853, 558-568, “II. Widerlegung des Buddhistischen Systems vom Standpunkte des Sivaismus”, ZDMG 8, 1854, 720-738 (Arunanti’s Sivajñânasittiyâr transl.), “III. Uebersetzung von Nampi’s Akapporul Viḷakkam”, ZDMG 11, 1857, 369-395.

Bibliotheca Tamulica sive opera praecipua Tamuliensium. 1. Tamulische Schriften zur Erläuterung des Vedanta-Systems oder der rechtgläubigen Philosophie der Hindus. 16+203 p. Lp. 1854 (Kaivaljanavanîta, Pañcadaśaprakarana transl. in German, and the Sanskrit Âtma Bôda Prakâśika, ed. & transl.); 2. Kaivalyanavanīta, a Vedānta Poem. The Tamil Text with a Translation, a Glossary and Grammatical Notes, to which is added an Outline of Tamil Grammar. 10+174+101 p. Lp. & L. 1855; 3. Der Kural des Tiruvalluver, ein gnomischer Gedicht über die drei Strebeziele des Menschen. Übersetzung und Erklärung. 23+196 p. Lp. 1856; 4. Kural of Tiruvalluver, High-Tamil Text with Translation into Common Tamil and Latin, notes and Glossary. Edited by W. Germann. 10+335 p. Lp. 1865.

Outline of Tamil Grammar. Accompanied by Specimens of Tamil Structure, and Comparative Tables of the Flexional System in Other Dravida Dialects. 100 p. Lp. & Oxford 1855.

Indische Sinnpflanzen und Blumen: zur kennzeichnung des indischen, vornehmlich tamulischen Geistes. 21+227 p. Erlangen 1865 (transl. anthology).

Edited Hallische Missionsnachrichte from 1854.

Sources: Gosche, Wiss. Jahresber. zu ZDMG 1862-67, 67f.; *G. Hermann, Dr. Karl Graul und seine Bedeutung für die lutherische Mission. 6+23 p. Missionsnachrichten der Ostindischen Missions­anstalt in Halle 18. Halle 1867; Herring 1994, 58-60; *W. Hosäus, A.D.B. 9, 1879, 604f.; V. Klahre, “Karl Graul (1814-1864) — Dravidologe und Missionar”, Asien, Afrika, Lateinamerika 17, 1989, 58-65; *S. Krügel, Hundert Jahre Graul-Interpretation. Diss. Halle 1963; A. Lehmann, “Ein deutscher Dravidologe des 19. Jahrhunderts”, WZHalle 13:9/10, 1964, 605-612 (same in English, TC 11, 1964, 209-225); A. Lehmann, N.D.B. 7, 1966, 8; *Luthardt, Herzogs Theol. Realenz. 19 (Suppl. 1), 1865, 578-584; Mohanavelu 1993, 196f.; Stache-Rosen 1990, 46f.; briefly D.B.E. 4, 1996, 124; Wikipedia (German version with portrait); photo in Rau 23.

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