ANDREAS, Friedrich Carl. Batavia 14.4.1846 — Göttingen 3.10.1930. German Iranian Scholar. Professor in Göttingen. Born in Dutch East India as the son of military physician with Armenian background, he was sent to Hamburg for school in the age of seven. Matriculated in Genève. Studies of Oriental languages in 1863-68 at Halle (under Pott), Erlangen (Spiegel & Delitzsch), Göttingen (Ewald & Benfey), and Leipzig (Fleischer). Ph.D. in summer 1868 at Erlangen. Further studies in Copenhagen, 1870 to army, then 1872-74 in Kiel. In 1874 he was chosen to be the Epigraphist and Archaeologist of an astronomic expedition to Iran, travelled in summer next year to India, where he had to stop in Bombay because of cholera epidemy and was thus able to study the Parsi religion. Arrived in Iran in January 1876. The expedition was concluded in the same year, but FCA remained in the country making his living giving lessons and having temporary offices, for a while even as the head postmaster of the country. In the fall 1881 he headed the retinue of Persian princes to Europe, travelled through Russia and arrived in Berlin in January 1882. There he became seriously ill and recovered slowly. Without means he had to give lessons in Oriental languages and do other kinds of jobs for his living. In 1887 he was nominated to the temporary chair of Persian in the just founded Orientalisches Seminar in Berlin, but conflicted with intrigues and had to give up in 1889. A new difficult period of private lessons and such followed.
In 1903 a new chair of West Asian Languages was founded at Göttingen University, and this at last gave FCA a permanent position and an occasion to concentrate on his studies. He was a many-sided scholar, mainly a philologist, interested in the modern Persian (much material was collected during his travels and published, partly in collaboration with A. Christensen), in Ossetic, in Iranian Turfan fragments, in Avesta (he emphasized the late date of the extant text and tried to reconstruct the Sassanian text behind it), in Pehlevi, and even in Semitics and Classical philology. He worked hard on his research, but did not care to explain much or to answer to his critics and gained this way the name of “Geheimwissenschaft” for his theories. Some judged them entirely arbitrary, which, according to Lentz, was unfounded. He avoided generalizations and published comparatively little. He was unsociable, slept during days and worked during nights, disparaged his colleagues, and was himself very demanding as a teacher. Among his students were: —> A. Christensen, L. Gaál, W. B. Henning, and W. Lentz.
Publications: diss. Beiträge zu einer genaueren Kenntnis des mittelpersischen Laut- und Schriftsystem. 1868; The book of the Mainyô-i-Khard, also an old fragment of the Bundehesh. Facs. ed. 79 p. Kiel 1882.
– with Stolze: Persepolis. Die achaemenidischen und sasanidischen Denkmäler und Inschriften. 1882; and Die Handelsverhältnisse Persiens. 1885.
– “Die dritte Ghāthā (sic!) des Zuraxthuštro (Josno 30). Versuch einer Herstellung der älteren Textformen nebst Übersetzung”, NGGW Philol.-hist. Kl. 1909, 42-49; with Wackernagel: “Die vierte Ghāthā des Zuraxthuštro”, NGGW 1911, 1-34; “Die erste, zweite und fünfte Ghāthā des Zuraxthuštro 1.”, NGGW 1913, 363-385 & “2. Anmerkungen”, NGGW 1931, 304–329.
– “Mitteliranische Manichaica aus Chinesisch-Turkestan”, aus dem Nachlass hrsg. von W. B. Henning. SBeAW 1932–34, 3 fasc.; “Bruchstücke einer Pehlevi-Übersetzung der Psalmen”, aus dem N. hrsg. von K. Barr. SBeAW 1933, 91-152.
– Iranische Dialektaufzeichnungen. 1. 503 p. AGGW 3. F. 11. B. 1939.
Sources: W. Lentz, ZII 8, 1931, 1–17; *G. v. Selle, Idg. Jb. 15, 1931, 366-376 (with photo); *bibliography by J. Eyser in Festschrift Andreas 1916, 137–142; German Wikipedia (with two photos).