KOWALEWSKI, Józef Szcepan (Joseph Etienne K., Russian Osip Mihailovič Kovalevskij). Grodno 9.1.1801(28.12.1800) — Warsaw 20.10.(7.11.)1878. Polish Mongolian and Buddhist Scholar in Russia. Professor in Kazan and Warsaw. Studied classical philology and literature at Vilnius University, but became involved in student’s uprising and was expelled to Kazan in 1824. In this “Siberia” of liberal and learned scholars he continued his Arabic studies and started several other Oriental languages, among them Mongolian, which soon became his speciality. In time he became Professor of Mongolian at Kazan, and after returning to Poland at Warsaw University. His great Mongolian dictionary is said to be the best ever published as far as the Buddhist literature is concerned.
Publications: 72 works, including:
– Kratkaja grammatika mongol’skago knižnago jazyka. Kazan 1835; Mongol’skaja hrestomatija. 1-2. Kazan 1836-37.
– Dictionnaire Mongol-Russe-Français. 1-3. 2690 p. Kazan 1844-49.
Sources: Poppe 80; Kračkovski 1957, 169; *W. Kotwicz, J. K. Orientalista (1801–1878). Wrocław 1948 (with bibliography); *Biobibl. slovar’ Kazan 1, 1904, 232-234; *NAA 1982:2, 205-207; Wikipedia with photo (much more in *Russian version).