MAUSS, Marcel. Épinal (Vosges) 10.5.1872 — Paris 10.2.1950. French Sociologist and Anthropologist. Born in an Alsatian Jewish family, son of Gerson M. and Rosine Durkheim. Studied philosophy at Bordeaux under his famous uncle É. Durkheim. After agregation (1895) studied Sanskrit (S. Lévi) and comparative religion in Paris. He had leftist ideas and was active in the Dreyfuss affair. With his friend —> H. Hubert he wrote on the sociology of Vedic religion in 1898. From 1901 Directeur adjoint, then directeur d’études at É.P.H.É. (“Histoire des religions des peuples non civilisés”). In 1914-19 served in the army as interpreter. In 1931-41 also Professor of Sociology at Collège de France, then dismissed as a Jew. Married late, 1934, Marthe Dupret (d. 1947). Short visit to Morocco in 1930 was his only travel outside Europe. Among his many students were Dumézil and L. Dumont.
Publications: With H. Hubert: “Essai sur la nature et la fonction du sacrifice”, Année sociologique 1897-98, 29-138 (Veda), republ. in their collective vol. Mélanges d’histoire des religions. P. 1909.
– With H. Hubert: “Esquisse d’une théorie générale de la magie”, Année sociologique 1902-03.
– “Mythologie et symbolisme indiens”, Année sociologique 1903, 247-253; “Anna-Virāj”, Mélanges Lévi 1911, 333-341; some Indological reviews (RHR 44, 1901);
– “Essai sur le don. Forme et raison de l’échange dans les sociétés archaïques”, Année sociologique 1923-24, 4th ed. 482 p. P. 1968; other works including much on Australia; Oeuvres. 1-3. Paris 1968-69.
Sources: *M. Fimiani, M.M. e il pensiero dell’origine. Naples 1984; *M. Fournier, M.M. P. 1994; *W. James & N.J. Allen (eds.), M.M. A Centenary Tribute. 260 p. Methodology and Hist. of Anthropology 1. N.Y. 1998; *B. Karsenti, M.M. Le fait social total. Paris 1994; *S. Martelli, M.M. Una introduzione. Rome 1987; *St. Moebius, M.M. 156 p. Klassiker der Wissenssoziologie 2. Konstanz 2006; L. Valensi, D.O.L.F. 668-670: Wikipedia with photo and further references (another photo and bibliography in French version).
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