CASAL, Jean-Marie. Troyes 30.6.1905 — Antibes 12.12.1977. French Archaeologist. Husband of Geneviève Casal (née Bell, 1910?–2002). After studies of Law he started a commercial career, but captivity during the WW II changed his life. After the war he studied at Louvre under Ph. Stern, and met there his future wife. In 1946 they travelled to India. They participated in Wheeler’s excavations at Brahmagiri and applied then his methods (stratigraphy, etc.) in their own excavations at Virampatnam-Arikamedu (1947-48). In 1949-50 they excavated the megalithic graveyards in Mouttrapaléon and Souttoukény. All these excavations were promptly published. The years 1951-58 were spent excavating for the D.A.F.A. the prehistoric layers in Mundigak near Kandahar in Afghanistan. From 1957 conservateur des Musées nationaux, then détaché au C.N.R.S., and from 1959 organizer of excavations in Pakistan. In 1959-62 excavated at Amri, Pakistan, where he found an excellent stratigraphic series, the first among Indus excavations. In 1962 excavated at Nindowar in Baluchistan, and studied on Kulli and Nal cultures. In 1965 the Indo-Pakistani war interrupted his work. After the war at Pirak in Baluchistan. From 1969 directeur de recherche at C.N.R.S. In 1973 he became ill at Pirak and had to give up field-work. Retired in 1975, spent his last years in Antibes, often ill.
Publications: “Les fouilles de Virapatnam-Arikamedu”, CRAI 1949, 142-147; other articles and reports in CRAI, etc.
– with G. Casal: Fouilles de Virapatnam-Arikamedu: rapport de l’Inde et de l’occident aux environs de l’ère chrétienne. P. 1949; Site urbain et sites funéraires des environs de Pondichéry: Virapatnam-Mouttrapaléon-Souttoukèny. Publ. de la Commission des Fouilles Archéologiques. Fouilles de l’Inde. P. 1956.
– Fouilles de Mundigak. 1-2. 260+143 p. 45 pl. M.D.A.F.A. 17. 1961.
– Fouilles d’Amri. 1-2. 174+12 p. 114 p. ill. 31 pl. P. 1964.
– “Nindowari – A Chalcolithic Site of South Baluchistan”, Pakistan Archeology 3, 1966, 10-21; “Preliminary report on the excavations at Pirak (1968–70)”, Pakistan Archaeology 7, 1970-71, 90-98, 4 pl.
– La civilisation de l’Indus et ses énigmes. 225 p. ill. P. 1969.
Sources: J. F. Jarrige, South Asian Archaeology 1975. Leiden 1979, 1f. with photo; http://jmcasal.free.fr with several photos.
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