HAUG, Martin. Ostdorf bei Balingen, Württemberg 30.1.1827 — Ragaz, Switzerland 3.6.1876. German Indo-Iranian Scholar. Son of a farmer, Martin H., who only reluctantly allowed his talented son to pursue studies, and Anna Maria Jetter. At the age of 16 he worked as an auxiliary teacher. On his own he learned Latin, Greek, Hebrew, Arabic and Sanskrit (from Bopp’s Nalus) and passed the matriculation examen in Stuttgart. Now studies of classical and Oriental philology, especially Indology under Roth at Tübingen, where Ph.D. 1851 (diss. on Plutarch). Further studies at Göttingen, of Semitic (Ewald) and Sanskrit (Benfey). PD 1854 Bonn (Zarathustra’s teaching according to the Gathas). His living he mainly earned as tutor. He also worked in Heidelberg as Assistant to Bunsen in his great Bible work. In 1859-66 in India as Superintendent of Sanskrit and Professor of Sanskrit at Poona College. In 1863-64 visited Gujarat in search for Sanskrit manuscripts. In 1866 had to quit because of health problems and return to Germany (in Poona he was succeeded by Kielhorn). In 1868 he became the first Professor of Sanskrit at Munich University and taught there until his death. Married 1859 Sophia Speidel, one son.
Haug started his career mainly as Iranian scholar, but during the years in India he was able to become acquainted with living Hindu religion. He was the first to describe a Vedic ritual as actually performed. Contact with the Parsis gave a new direction to his Iranian studies and here, too, he became a proponent of the study of living traditions. He brought a big collection of manuscripts and artefacts (now in Munich). His further interests included Sanskrit grammar and cuneiform studies. Among his students are mentioned Johaentgen (at Bonn), Bhandarkar (Poona), West, Hübschmann, Jolly, Bezzenberger, Hillebrandt, Myriantheus, J. Schwab, Vasconcelos Abreu and Garcia Ayuso (Munich).
Publications: Habil.diss. with continuation: “Zendstudien”, ZDMG 7, 1853, 314-337, 506-526; 8, 1854, 739-771; 9, 1855, 683-704.
– “Über die Pehlewi-Sprache und den Bundehesch”, GGA 1854, 46 p.; “Über den Character der Pehlewi-Sprache”, SBaAW 1869:1, 85-118; smaller articles and reviews.
– Edited & transl. (in Latin & German): Die Gâthâs des Zarathustra. 1-2. 16+246 & 16+258 p. A.K.M. 1:3 & 2:2. 1858-60.
– Essays on the Sacred Language, Writings and Religions of the Parsees. 268 p. Bombay 1862, 5th enl. ed. by E. W. West. 475 p. L. 1907.
– Edited & transl.: Aitareya Brahmanam of the Rig Veda. 1-2. 312+544 p. Bombay 1863.
– “Ueber die ursprüngliche Bedeutung des Wortes brahma (brahman)”, SBaAW 1868:2, 80-100.
– Über den gegenwärtigen Stand der Zendphilologie mit besonderer Rücksicht auf Ferd. Justis sogenanntes altbaktrisches Wörtebuch. 70 p. St. 1868.
– “Ueber das 18. Capitel des Vendidâds”, SBaAW 1868:2, 509-560; “Die Ahuna-Vairya-Formel, das heiligste Gebet der Zoroastrier”, SBaAW 2, 1872, 89-135.
– An Old Zand-Pahlavi Glossary. Ed. with translit. and English transl. by JamaspjiAsa. Rev. with Notes and Introd. by M. Haug. 56+132 p. Bombay & London 1867; An Old Pahlavi-Pazand Glossary. Ed. by JamaspjiAsa. Rev. & enl. with an Introductory Essay by M. Haug. 268+152+16 p. Bombay & London 1870 (Introd. also sep. publ. St. 1870).
– “Über das Ardâi Vîrâf nâmeh (die Visionen des alten Pârsenpriesters Ardâi Wîrâf) und seinen angeblichen Zusammenhang mit den christlichen Apocryphen ‘die Himmelsfahrt des Jesaja’ betitelt”, SBaAW 1870:1, 327-364.
– The Book of Arda Viraf. Ed. by JamaspjiAsa. Rev. by M. Haug & E. W. West. 92+136 p. Bombay & L. 1872.
– “Ueber das Wesen und Werth des Wedischen Accents”, ABaAW 13:1, 1875, 1-107; “Vedische Räthselfragen und Räthselsprüche”, SBaAW 1875:2, 457-515; review of Delbrück, Vedische Chrestomathie, GGA 1875, 65-103; “On the interpretation of the Veda”, OC 2, London 1874, Transactions 1876, 213-226.
Sources: *Benfey 611f., 614, 624, 633f.; *Bezzenberger, BB 1, 1877, 70-80 & 175f., with bibliography; Buckland, Dictionary; Eilers, N.D.B. 8, 1969, 91f.; J. Jolly, A.D.B. 11, 1880, 54-56; *v. Prandl, SBaAW 1877, 32-37; *K. Schoebel, C.-R. de 1. C. int. des Or. P. 1873, t. 3, 38f.; JRAS Proc. 1877, x-xiii; Stache-Rosen 1990, 68f.; Stache-Weiske 2017, 527; *Fr. Veit (ed.), Festschrift zur Erinnerung an die Haug-Feier in Ostdorf am 29. August 1909. Tübingen 1909 with life, bibliography and photo (again in Rau 33); Wikipedia (more details in German version).
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