HEEREN, Arnold Hermann Ludwig. Arbergen near Bremen 25.10.1760 — Göttingen 6.3.1842. German Historian and Classical Scholar. Professor in Göttingen. Son of Hinr. Ehrhard Heeren, a clergyman, and Margarethe Wolters, educated under a tutor until 16, when family moved to Bremen and Heeren went to Gymnasium there. In 1779 started theological studies (as wished by father) at Göttingen, but inspired by Heyne soon changed into philology and concentrated on history and Greek poetry. Ph.D. 1784, PD of Philology 1785 Göttingen. He was preparing an edition of Stobaeus and travelled in Italy studying manuscripts in 1785-87. From August 1787 ao. Professor and from 1794 ord. of Philosophy at Göttingen. Now he concentrated more and more on history, especially on the history of commerce, travels and administration. The field was not specified, but in 1801 he assumed the title of Professor of History. From 1827 editor of the GGA. Married 1796 Wilhelmine Heyne, the daughter of his teacher C. G. Heyne, no children.
As a member of the “Göttingen School” Heeren was an early representant of critical scholarship, who did not accept the “theological prehistory”. He was also one of the first not to concentrate on wars and rulers, he himself said to be more interested in “peace history” (Friedensgeschichte) than war history. His good command of classical sources made his work important for ancient history. From classical sources and secondary literature he compiled the first attempt of an Indian cultural history for the 3rd edition of his famous Ideen. It was an important pioneer work, although soon shadowed by others, who could also rely on primary sources (von Bohlen, Benfey, Lassen). Without access to original Indian sources he was capable of collecting everything available and dealt with his material with the skill of a seasoned historian achieving very good results. He was the first historian to include Asia and Africa fully in world history. He was a popular and famous teacher.
Publications: Diss. De chori Graecorum tragici natura et indole. 47 p. Gottingae 1784.
– Edited: Menander rhetor de encomiis. Gottingae 1785; Stobaeus, Eclogae. 1-3. Gottingae 1792-1801
– Geschichte der classischen Literatur im Mittelalter. 1-2. Göttingen 1794-1801; Geschichte des Studiums der klassischen Litteratur seit dem Wiederaufleben der Wissenschaften. 1-2. Göttingen 1797-1802; Handbuch der Geschichte der Staaten des Alterthums. 576 p. Göttingen 1799; Versuch einer Entwickelung der Folgen der Kreuzzüge für Europa. 14+440 p. Göttingen 1808; Handbuch der Geschichte des europäischen Staatensystems und seiner Kolonien. 32+682 p. Göttingen 1809; and other works and articles, new editions and translations especially in French and English.
– “De India Graecis cognitu” (Vorgelegt 16. Jan. 1790. Commentationes Soc. R. Gottingensis Vol. X. Cl. Hist. p. 121) and id. II. (Vorgelegt 8. Jan. 1791. Comm. Vol. XI. Cl. Hist. p. 63) and “De India Romanis cognita” (Vorgelegt 4. Aug. 1792. Comm. Vol. XI. Cl. Hist. p. 91), Historische Werke 3. Göttingen 1821, 300–322.
– Ideen über die Politik, den Verkehr und den Handel der vornehmsten Völker der alten Welt. 1-2. Göttingen 1793-96 & 3. 1812, 2nd ed. with an account of classical sources on India, 3rd. ed. with a separate vol. 3. on Iran and India. Göttingen 1815; further editions, translated into several European languages.
– “De fontibus geographicorum Strabonis”, Commentationes Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Gottingensis recentiores, classis historicae et philologiae 5, 1819-22, Gottingae 1823, 97-160; “Commentatio de Ceylone insula per viginti fere saecula communi terrarum mariumque australium emporio”, Ibid. 7, 1828-32, 19-38.
– “Versuche die frühesten Spuren einiger Handelszweige des Altertums zu erklären”, Abhandlungen der Göttingischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, Historisch-philologische Classe 1, Göttingen 1843, 21 pp. (paper read already 1834, a Latin summary, “Conamina ad explicanda nonnulla historiae mercaturae antiqua capita”, was published in GGA 1834, 2049-2076).
– Historische Werke. 1-15. Göttingen 1821-30 (edited by himself in several editions).
Sources: I. Crusius, N.D.B. 8, 1969, 195f.; K. Hoeck, AGGW 2, 1843, 20 p.; *H. Seier in H.-U. Wehler, Deutsche Historiker 9, Gött. 1982, 61-80; Windisch 59-63; *F.X. v. Wegele, A.D.B. 11, 1880, 244-246; *Bibliography in Pütter – Saalfeld – Oesterley, Gesch. der Univ. Göttingen 1, 194, 3, 344 & 4, 442; Wikipedia with portrait, based on v. Wegele.
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