HEEREN, Arnold Hermann Ludwig

HEEREN, Arnold Hermann Ludwig. Arbergen near Bremen 25.10.1760 — Göttingen 6.3.1842. German Historian and Classical Scholar. Professor in Göttingen. Son of Hinr. Ehrhard Heeren, a minister, and Margarethe Wolters, educated under a tutor until 16, when family moved to Bremen and AHLH went to Gymnasium there. In 1779 started theological studies (as wished by father) at Göttingen, but inspired by Heyne soon changed into philology and concentrated on history and Greek poetry. Ph.D. 1784, PD of Philology 1785 Göttingen. He prepared an edition of Stobaeus and travelled in Italy studying manuscripts in 1785-87. From August 1787 ao. Professor and from 1794 ord. of Philosophy at Göttingen. Now he concentrated more and more on history, especially on history of commerce, travel and administration. From 1799 or 1801 Professor of History at Göttingen. From 1827 editor of the GGA. In 1796 married Wilhelmine Heyna, the daughter of his teacher C. G. Heyne, no children.

AHLH was an early representant of critical scholarship, who did not accept the “theological prehistory”. He was also one of the first not to concentrate on wars and rulers, he himself said to be more interested in “peace history” (Friedensgeschichte) than war history. His good command of classical sources made his work important for ancient history. From classical sources and secondary literature he compiled the first attempt of an Indian cultural history for the 3rd edition of his famous Ideen. It was an important pioneer work, though soon shadowed by others, who could also rely on primary sources (von Bohlen, Benfey, Lassen). Without access to original sources he was able of collecting everything available and dealt with his material with the skill of a seasoned historian achieving very good results. He was the first historian to include Asia and Africa in world history. He was a popular and famous teacher.

Publications: diss. De chori Graecorum tragici natura et indole. Gott. 1784.

edited: Menander rhetor de encomiis. 1785; Stobaeus, Eclogae. 1-3. 1792-1801.

Geschichte der classischen Literatur im Mittelalter. 1-2. 1794-1801; Geschichte des Studiums der klassischen Litteratur seit dem Wiederaufleben der Wissenschaften. 1-2. Göttingen 1797-1802; Handbuch der Geschichte der Staaten des Alterthums. Gött. 1799; Handbuch der Geschichte des europäischen Staatensystems und seiner Kolonien. Gött. 1809; Entwicklung der politischen Folgen der Reformation für Europa. 1???; Historische Entwicklung des Ursprungs und Fortgangs des brittischen Continentalintresse. 18??.

– “De India Graecis cognitu” (Vorgelegt 16. Jan. 1790. Commentationes Vol. X. Cl. Hist. p. 121) and id. II. (Vorgelegt 8. Jan. 1791. Comm. Vol. XI. Cl. Hist. p. 63) and “De India Romanis cognita” (Vorgelegt 4. Aug. 1792. Comm. Vol. XI. Cl. Hist. p. 91), Historische Werke 3. Göttingen 1821, 300–322.

Ideen über die Politik, den Verkehr und den Handel der vornehmsten Völker der alten Welt. Göttingen 1-2. 1793-96, 2nd ed. with an account of classical sources on India, 3rd. ed. with a separate vol. on Indien. 1815.

– “De fontibus geographicorum Strabonis”, Commentationes Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Gottingensis recentiores, classis historicae et philologiae 5, 1819-22, Gottingae 1823; “Commentatio de Ceylone insula per viginti fere saecula communi terrarum mariumque australium emporio”, Ibid. 7, 1828-32, 19-38.

– “Versuche die frühesten Spuren einiger Handelszweige des Altertums zu erklären”, Abhandlungen der Göttingischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, Historisch-philologische Classe 1, Göttingen 1843, 21 pp. (paper read already 1834, a Latin summary, “Conamina ad explicanda nonnulla historiae mercaturae antiqua capita”, was published in GGA 1834, 2049-2076).

Sämmtliche Werke. 1821ff. Also as Historische Werke. Edited himself in several editions.

Sources: I. Crusius, N.D.B. 8, 1969, 195f.; K. Hoeck, AGGW 2, 1843, 20 p.; Windisch 59-63; *F.X. v. Wegele, A.D.B. 11, 1880, 244-246; *Bibliography in Pütter – Saalfeld – Oesterley, Gesch. der Univ. Göttingen 1, 194, 3, 344 & 4, 442; Wikipedia with portrait.

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