HOPKINS, Edward Washburn

HOPKINS, Edward Washburn. Northampton, MA 8.9.1857 — Madison, CT 16.7.1932. U.S. Indologist. Professor in New Haven. Born in an old New English priestly and scholarly family, son of physician Lewis Spring Hopkins and Francis Jane Washburn. After Bridgewater academy studies of classical philology at Columbia University, B.A. 1878, with a thesis comparing Greek and Sanskrit literature. Learnt Sanskrit by himself from Whitney’s grammar. Three years further studies in Europe: Indology, Iranian and IE at Berlin (Weber) and Leipzig (Windisch). Ph.D. 1881 Leipzig. Returned to the States worked four years as Tutor of Latin at Columbia University, also taught Sanskrit and Avesta (A. V. W. Jackson among students). In 1885-95 Professor of Greek, Sanskrit and Comparative Philology at Bryn Mawr College. In 1895 succeeded Whitney as Salisbury Professor of Sanskrit at Yale. In 1896-97 visited India and made later a few short visits to Europe, but normally stayed in the States. In 1926 emeritus (and succeeded by Edgerton). In good health until his death he continued research. Died in his summer apartment. Hon. Ph.D. Yale, 1902 Columbia and Athens. Married 1893 Mary Sanger Clark (1863–1937), one daughter and five sons (Francis W. Hopkins married Grace Sturtevant [—> Gr. Hopkins]).

Hopkins was a many-sided Indologist. He began with the sociological aspects of Hindu Dharma, especially Varṇa. A specialist of epics and history of religions, later also interested in general study of religion. In his late years rendered Indian legends in English metre.

Publications: Diss. The mutual relations of the four castes according to the Mānavadharmaçāstram. 6+114 p. Lp. 1881.

– The Ordinances of Manu. Translated by A. C. Burnell, completed and ed. by E. W. H. 484 p. L. 1884.

– “Words for Color in the Rig-Veda”, AJPh 4, 1883, 166-191; “The Dog in the Rig-Veda”, AJPh  15, 1894, 154-163; “Problematic Passages in the Rig-Veda”, JAOS 15, 1893, 252-283; “Prāgāthikāni I. the Vocabulary”, JAOS 17, 1896, 23-92; “The Puñjab and the Rig-Veda”, JAOS 19:2, 1898, 19-28.

– “On the professed quotations from Manu found in the Mahābhārata”, JAOS 11, 1885, 239-275; “The Bhārata and the Great Bhārata”, AJPh 19:1, 1898, 1-24; “Parallel Features in the Two Sanskrit Epics”, AJPh 19, 1898, 138-151; “Proverbs and Tales Common to the Two Sanskrit Epics”, AJPh 20, 1899, 22-39; “Lexicographical notes from the Mahābhārata”, JAOS 20:1, 1899, 18-30; “Yoga-techniques in the Great epic”, JAOS 22, 1901, 233-379; “Epic Chronology”, JAOS 24, 1903, 7-56; “Mythological Aspects of Trees and Mountains in the Great Epic”, JAOS 30, 1910, 347-374; many short notes on Indian epics in JAOS and PAOS.

– “The Social and Military Position of the Ruling Castes in Ancient India”, JAOS 13, 1889, 320 p.

– “Vedic Reduplication of Nouns and Adjectives”, AJPh 14, 1893, 1-40; “Aspects of Vedic Dative”, JAOS 28, 1907, 360-406.

– The Religions of India. 644 p. Boston & L. 1895.

– The Great Epic of India: Character and origin of the Mahābhārata . 479 p. N.Y. 1901, 2nd ed. 1913, 3rd 1920.

– India Old and New. 368 p. N.Y. 1901.

– “The Text of the Cyavana-Story of the Jaiminīya-Brāhmaṇa with Notes and Translation”, JAOS 26:1, 1905, 58-67; “Gods and Saints of the Great Brāhmaṇa”, Tr. Connecticut Acad. 15, 1909, 23-69.

– “The Fountain of Youth”, JAOS 26:1, 1905, 1-67 & 26:2, 1906, 411-415.

– “Remarks on the Form of Numbers, the Method of Using them, and the Numerical Categories found in the Mahābhārata”, JAOS 23, 1902, 109-155; “Limitation of Time by Means of Cases in Epic Sanskrit”, AJPh 24, 1903, 1-24.

– Epic Mythology. 292 p. Grundriss III:I B.Strassburg 1915.

– The History of Religions. 656 p. N.Y. 1918; Origin and Evolution of Religions. New Haven 1923.

– In Cambridge History of India. 1. 1922 chapters: “The Period of the Sūtras, Epics and law-books”, “Family Life and Social Customs as they appear in the Sūtras”, “The Princes and Peoples of the Epic Poems”, and “The Growth of Law and Legal Institutions”.

– Ethics of India. 265 p. L. 1924; Legends of India. 8+193 p. New Haven 1928.

– “The Original Rāmāyaṇa”, JAOS 46, 1926, 202-219; “Allusions to the Rāma-Story in the Mahābhārata”, JAOS 50, 1930, 85-103; “The Oath in Hindu Epic Literature”, JAOS 52, 1932, 316-337.

– A great number of brief articles and reviews in JAOS, AJPh, etc.

Sources: Buckland, Dictionary; F. Edgerton, JAOS 52, 1932, 311-315 with photo; *S.W. Jamison, Lex. gramm. 1996, 428; N.G. Osborn, Men of Mark in Connecticut. 2. Hartford, CT 1906, 313f.; *Nat. Cyclop. of Am. Biogr. 14, 476; briefly Wikipedia with photo.

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