MACAULIFFE, Max Arthur (born Michael Macauliffe). Glenmore, Monagea, co. Limerick 11.9.1838 (Foley) or Newcastle West, county Limerick 10.9.1841 (Wikip.) — London 15.3.1913. Irish Scholar of Sikhism in India. Son of John McA., a schoolteacher, and Julia Browne. Educated at Glenmore, Templeglantine (his father’s schools) and finally at Springfield College in Ennis.Studies at Queen’s College, Galway(B.A. 1860). In 1862 joined I.C.S., 1864 to the Punjab. From 1882 Deputy Commissioner, 1884 Divisional Judge. Retired in 1894 and concentrated on his Sikh studies, living as a free scholar in Amritsar and Nabha. In 190? returned to England.Unmarried.

Macauliffe became early interested in Sikhs and Sikhism and devoted himself to their study. He took earnestly Sikh traditions and interpretations and, unlike Trumpp, was appreciated by the Sikhs themselves. According to Sikhs, the government found his approach too positive – he was said to have “turned a Sikh” (Foley claims this to be true) – but the official coolness may also be due to other factors, such as his Irish background. In his studies he was assisted by the Sikh scholar Pratap Singh Giani (1855–1920).

Publications: The holy writings of the Sikhs. 30 p. Allahabad 1900; Life of guru Nanak. 282 p. Lahore 1903; The Sikh Religion, its Gurus, sacred writings and authors. 1-6 in 3. 88+383+351+444+421+351+453 p. Oxford 1909.

Articles on the Sikh religion and literature.

Sources: T. Foley, D.I.B. 5, 725-727; Harbans Singh, The Encyclop. of Sikhism 3, 1-4 (Internet version); neither in the Who Was Who nor Br. Biogr. Arch.; works in N.U.C.; Wikipedia with photo.

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