MACAULIFFE, Max Arthur (Michael). Newcastle West, county Limerick 10.9.1841 — L. 15.3.1913. Irish Scholar of Sikhism in India. Educated in Limerick and Galway (B.A. 1860). In 1862 joined I.C.S., 1864 to the Punjab. From 1882 Deputy Commissioner, 1884 Divisional Judge. Retired in 1894 and concentrated on his Sikh studies, living as a free scholar in Amritsar and Nabha. In 190? returned to England.

MAM became early interested in Sikhs and Sikhism and devoted himself to their study. He took earnestly Sikh traditions and interpretations and, unlike Trumpp, was appreciated by the Sikhs themselves. According to Sikhs, the government found his approach too positive – he was said to have “turned a Sikh” – but the official coolness may also be due to other factors, such as his Irish background.

Publications: The holy writings of the Sikhs. 30 p. Allahabad 1900; Life of guru Nanak. 282 p. Lahore 1903; The Sikh Religion, its Gurus, sacred writings and authors. 1-6 in 3. 88+383+ 351+444+421+351+453 p. Oxford 1909.

articles on the Sikh religion and literature.

Sources: Harbans Singh, The Encyclop. of Sikhism 3, 1-4 (Internet version)neither in the Who Was Who nor Br. Biogr. Arch.; works in N.U.C.; Wikipedia with photo.

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