ZIMMERMANN, Friedrich (Subhadra Bhikṣu)

ZIMMERMANN, Friedrich Albert Oswald (Subhadra Bhikṣu/Bhikkhu). Degerloch near Stuttgart 8.4.1851 — Stuttgart 30.6.1917. German Bauddha. Studied mathematics and became an engineer. He became interested in Buddhism through Schopenhauer and studied some Pāli, but was mainly influenced by Neumann’s Majjhimanikāya. Together with Seidenstücker, he founded in 1911 the German branch of the Mahabodhi Society and was its first President (S. was Secretary). A close friend of G. Grimm. S. Bh. was a pen-name, he was married and had no ordination.

Publications: Buddhistischer Katechismus zur Einführung in die Lehre des Buddha Gautama. 88 p. Braunschweig 1888, new ed. by Seidenstücker 1921, translated into English 1890 (U.K.), 1895 (U.S.A.) & 1907 (Sri Lanka), French 1889 (France) & 1897 (Switzerland), Japanese 1889, Italian 1897, Hungarian 1901 & 1906, Dutch, Czech, Swedish, Russian (printed, but confiscated by the censorship).

Sources: Peiris 113f. with photo; Payer, Materialien 3; German Wikipedia.

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