BALLANTYNE, James Robert. Kelso, Teriotdale 13.12.1813 — London 18.2.1864. British (Scots) Indologist in India. A nephew (sister’s son) of —> J. Michael. Studies in Edinburgh (Academy and College), then Oriental languages at Haileybury. He taught for a while Indian languages at the Scottish Naval and Military Academy, in 1841 went to India and became first teacher and in 1845 Principal of the Benares College. Many-sided, in 1848 taught even elementary chemistry. Now he also developed an interest in Sanskrit, especially in grammatical literature (he read even Patañjali). He was one of the first Western scholars to have and give in his writings an accurate idea of Indian philosophy (although with missionary aims). He edited philosophical Sūtras on the basis of commentaries and consulting pandits. In 1861 he returned to Europe (his successor in Benares was Griffith) and became the Librarian of the East India House (India Office), but died after a few years.
Publications: Grammar of the Hindustani Language. 78 p. 1838, rev. 1842; Hindustani Selections, in the Neskhi and Devanagari Character. L. 1840, 2nd ed. 1845; Hindustani Letters in the Naskh-Taleek and Shikustu-Amez Character, with Translations. L. 1840; Elements of Hindi and Braj Bhakha Grammar. L. 1839, 2nd ed. 1868; Pocket Guide to Hindustani Conversation. L. 1839, 2nd ed. 1845; The Practical Oriental Interpreter, or hints on the art of translating from English into Hindi and Persian. L. 1843; ed. of B. Lal’s Hindi transl. of Hitopadesa, Book I (1851).
– A Grammar of the Mahratta Language. Edinburgh 1839; First Lessons in Sanskrit Grammar. Mirzapore 1842, 2nd ed. L. 1862; same in Hindi. Mirzapore 1848; A Catechism of Sanskrit Grammar. L. 1843; a couple of Persian text books.
– edited and transl.: The Laghukaumudī, a Sanskrit Grammar by Varadarāja. 1-3. 413 p. Mirzapore 1849-52; edited: The Mahabhashya with the Commentary of Bhashya Pradipa and the Commentary thereon the Pradipodyota. Vol. 1. containing the Navahnika. 832 p. Mirzapore 1856.
– translated: Sāhityadarpana (BI 1851); Introduction to Indian Logic (1847), to Metaphysic (1848); Kapila. The Sankhya Aphorisms. With Extracts from Vijñānabhikṣu’s Commentary. 175 p. B.I. 41. Calcutta 1861-63.
– edited: A Lecture on the Nyaya philosophy, embracing the text of the Tarka Sangraha. 63 p. Allahabad 1849; The Aphorisms of the Nyaya Philosophy by Gautama. 56 p. Allahabad 1850; A Lecture on the Sankhya philosophy, embracing the text of the Tattwa Samasa. 65 p. Mirzapur 1850; The Tarka Sangraha of Annam Bhatta, with a Hindi Paraphrase and English version. 24+48 p. Allahabad 1851; The Aphorisms of the Vedanta Philosophy by Badarayana, with illustrative extracts from the Commentary in Sanscrit and English. 51 p. Mirzapore 1851; A Lecture on the Vedanta, embracing the text of the Vedanta Sara. 84 p. Allahabad 1851; The Aphorisms of the Vaiseshika Philosophy of Kanada, with illustrative extracts from the Commentary by Sankara Misra. 34 p. Mirzapore 1851; The Aphorisms of the Mimamsa Philosophy by Jaimini, with illustrative extracts from the Commentaries in Sanscrit and English. 36 p. Allahabad 1851; Bhāsāpariccheda 1851; plain text of the Sāmkhyasūtra also Allahabad 1852; Yogasūtra Allahabad 1852-53; The Aphorisms of Ṥāṇḍilya with the Commentary of Svapneśwara. 74 p. B.I. 35. Calcutta 1861 (Bhaktisūtra).
– In Sanskrit: Synopsis of Science (1856), Christianity and Indian traditions (1859), Genesis, chapters 1–3 (1860).
Sources: Gosche, ZDMG, Wiss. Jahrb. für 1862–67, 59–62; S. L[ane]-P[oole], D.N.B. 3, 1885, 81f.; *Athenaeum 1864, March 12, p. 373; British Biogr. Archives; briefly in Wikipedia (with portrait). *Michael S. Dodson, Orientalism, Empire, and National Culture. India 1770–1880. Palgrave Macmillan 2007.