SCHROEDER, Leopold Alexander von

SCHROEDER, Leopold Alexander von. Dorpat (Tartu) 12.(24.)12.1851 — Vienna 8.2.1920. German (of Estonia) Indologist in Austria. Professor in Vienna. Son of school director Julius v. S. and Marie Schrenck, the 7th child in a large family. Educated in Dorpat (Tartu), as a schoolboy started attending Leo Meyer’s Sanskrit classes at the university. In 1870-73 studies of comparative grammar at Dorpat, then 1874-76 Sanskrit at Leipzig (E. Kuhn), Jena (Delbrück) and Tübingen (Roth). Mag. gr. comp. 1877 Dorpat, 1879 dr. gramm. comp. (Ph.D.) ibid. In 1877-82 PD für Indologie at Dorpat, in 1878-79 and 1880-81 further studies at Jena. In 1882-94 etatsmäss. Dozent für Sanskrit at Dorpat. In 1884 and 1888 again visited Germany. In 1891 married Lilly von Vietinghoff (née Föllersahm, 1844–1901), no children (but five stepchildren).

The rash russification of the Dorpat University forced von Schroeder to emigrate and Bühler arranged a chair in Austria. In 1894-97 ao. and 1897-99 ord. Professor der altindischen Geschichte und Alterthumskunde at Innsbruck. In 1899 succeeded Bühler at Vienna as ord. Professor der Indologie, until his death. Hon. Dr.theol. (ev.) 1918 Vienna. A brief visit to his stepson in Caucasia in 1905 was his only attempt to go even to the confines of Asia.

L. von Schroeder was a poet and philologist and a scholar of religions, mainly interested in the Veda, also in IE and Estonian religion. In his early years he hesitated between poetry and scholarship, and decided to try both – with varying success. His start in Vedic studies was good, from a manuscript given by Roth he showed the antiquity and importance of the Maitrāyaṇīsaṁhitā and proceeded to prepare an edition. Then he engaged in IE religion and started fieldwork on Estonian religion, also participating in the beginnings of Estonian archaeology. However, according to Frauwallner he destroyed Bühler’s work at Vienna and even discarded the development of the library. His autobiography explains much: He wrote plays and dreamed about their success (but his text was staged only once, 1890 in Riga). His ardent nationalism – both Baltic and Pan-German – and uncompromising idealism, his worship of Wagner, and his Aryan (he spoke of Urarisch instead of Indogermanisch) mysticism show him a representative of the soil, which somewhat later made possible the rise of Nazism. He was even a devoted Christian, but apparently became rather tired of his own special field. His editions of the Yajurveda Saṁhitās have been long in use, but his hypothesis about the Indian origin of Pythagoreanism, although still often favourably referred to, was already rejected by more critical contemporary scholars. In 1908 he derived the classical Indian theatre from the dialogue hymns of the Rigveda.

Publications: Mag.diss. Die Accentgesetze der homerischen Nominalkomposita, dargestellt und mit denen des Veda verglichen. 28 p. Dorpat 1877 (and in KZ 24); diss. Über die Maitrāyaṇī Saṁhitā, ihr Alter, ihr Verhältnis zu den verwandten Çākhās, ihre sprachliche und historische Bedeutung. 2+31 p. Dorpat 1879, also appeared as “Das Kâṭhakam und die Mâitrâyâṇî Saṁhitâ”, MbBeAW 1879, 675-704; “Ueber die Mâitrâyâṇî Saṁhitâ, ihr Alter, ihr Verhältnis zu den verwandten Çâkhâs, ihre sprachliche und historische Bedeutung”, ZDMG 33, 1879, 177-207.

Edited: Maitrāyaṇī Saṁhitā. Die Saṁhitā der Maitrāyaṇīya-Śākhā. 1-4. 46+175, 10+169, 4+193, 6+312 p. Lp. 1881-86; Kāṭhakam. Die Saṁhitā der Kaṭha-Śākhā. 1-3. 4+284, 3+193, 4+219 p. Lp. 1900-10 (with 4. Index verborum von R. Simon. 1909-12).

Pythagoras und die Inder. 93 p. Lp. 1884 (and WZKM 15, 1901, 187-202).

Indiens Literatur und Kultur in historischer Entwicklung. 7+785 p. Lp. 1887.

Griechische Götter und Heroen. 1. 118 p. B. 1887; Die Hochzeitsgebräuche der Esten und einiger anderen finnisch-ugrischen Völkerschaften in Vergleichung mit denen der indogermanischen Völker. 8+265 p. B. 1888; Wesen und Ursprung der Religion. 49 p. Riga 1905; Die Wurzeln der Sage von heiligen Gral. 98 p. SWA 166:2, 1910; Die Vollendung des arischen Mysteriums in Bayreuth. 258 p. Munich 1911; Religionslehre, Ein Hilfsbüchlein für Lehrer und Schüler. 75 p. Lp. 1921 (posthumous, on Christian religion); further writings on Estonian folklore and religion.

– “Apollon – Agni”, KZ 29, 1888, 193-229.

Transl. Mangoblüthen, eine Sammlung indischen Lieder. 198 p. St. 1892 (a selection); Worte der Wahrheit. Dhammapada. 22+150 p. Lp. 1892.

– “Zwei neuerworbene Handschriften der k.k. Hofbibliothek in Wien mit Fragmenten des Kâṭhaka”, SWA 133:11, 1896, 38 p.; “Die Tübinger Kaṭhā-Handschriften und ihre Be­ziehung zum Taittirīyāraṇyaka”, SWA 137:4, 1898, 126 p.; brief articles on Black YV in ZDMG 1891, 1892, 1895, 1897, WZKM 1896, 1897, 1898, 1899, 1900.

Transl. and adapted for stage: Sakuntala. Romantisches Märchendrama in fünf Akten und einem Vorspiel. 14+73 p. Munich 1903; Prinzessin Zofe. 8+70 p. Munich 1902 (Mālavikāgnimitra).

Mysterium und Mimus im Rigveda. Kritische Untersuchung und literar-historische Darstellung der dialogischen und dramatischen Lieder, Samvadas, im Rigveda. 501 p. Lp. 1908.

– Transl. Bhagavadgītā. Des Erhabenen Sang. 16+85 p. Jena 1912 (verse tr.).

Reden und Aufsätze vornehmlich über Indiens Literatur und Kultur. 13+430 p. Lp. 1913.

Herakles und Indra. Eine mythenvergleichende Untersuchung. 110 p. DenkschrWA 58:3-4. Vienna 1914.

Arische Religion. 1-2. 8+618, 7+707 p. Lp. 1914-16.

Lebenserinnerungen. 287 p. Lp. 1921.

Articles in WZKM, ZDMG, SbGelEsthnGes, MittAnthrGesWien, etc.

Poetry and plays.

Sources: Autobiography 1921 (with bibliography, 276-287); *bibliography by Chl. Werba & A. Griffiths, WZKS 50, 2006, 5-25; Bihl 66-69; Buckland, Dictionary; *Frauwallner; Deutsch-baltisches biogr. Lex.; *Hallik & Klaassen 2002, 132-138; Stache-Rosen 1990, 117f.; Stache-Weiske 2017, 269f., 559; *Vigasin 2008, 192-194; F. Wilhelm, N.D.B. 23, 2007, 551f.; briefly D.B.E. 9, 1998, 149; Wikipedia with photo (more in German version); photo in Rau 60 (from autobiography 1921, the same photo also in Vigasin 2008, 193), another in Sardesai 1938.

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