GUYARD, Stanislas. Frottey-lès-Vesoul (Haute-Saône) 27.9.1846 — Paris 7.9. 1884. French Orientalist, especially Semitic scholar, but with wide interests, including Indology. Son of Auguste G., a radical idealist who wanted to introduce a universal religion and homeopathy. From 11 years in Russia, came to Paris in 1861 in the age of 15, studied Oriental languages. Taught Arabic and Persian as Repetiteur, then Directeur d’études at É.P.H.É. since its foundation in 1868. Little before his death, in February 1884, appointed Professor of Arabic at Collège de France. Committed suicide “dans un accès de fièvre cerebrale” (Meyer). Unmarried.
StG was mainly an Arabic and Islamic scholar and an Assyriologist, in Indology mainly known from his translation of Minaev’s grammar. His interests further included Hebrew, Syriac and Ethiopian. Russian he had learned in his childhood in the country. In his last years he did much research on Akkadian and on the decipherment of the cuneiform of Urartu.
Publications: editor and contributor of Revue critique.
– Essai sur la formation du pluriel brisé en arabe. P. 1870; Fetwa d’Ibn Tamiyyah. 1871 (ed. & tr.); Fragments relatifs à la doctrine des Ismaélis. 1874; “Un grand maitre des Assasins au temps de Saladin”, JA 7:9, 1877, 324-489; Traité du décret et de l’arrêt divin par le docteur soufi Abd-er-Razzaq. 1877; Traité de la predestination et du libre arbitre, par le même. 1875; Théorie nouvelle de la métrique arabe. 1877; Le Divan de Beda ed dîn Zoheir. 1883.
– participated in the Leiden Tabari edition, of which his share appeared in 1881.
– translated from Russian: Minayeff, Grammaire pali. 1874.
– reviews, e.g. of Leupol’s Brahmavaivarta Purāṇa, Paris 1868, in JA 6:13, 1869, 378-382.
– Manuel de la langue persane vulgaire. 1880; “Notes de lexicographie arabe”, JA 18??.
Sources: J. Halévy, BSL 5, 1885, cci-ccv; A. Messaoudi, D.O.L.F. 472f.; C. Meyer, D.B.F. 17, 1989, 389; E. Renan, RHR 10, 1884, 231-237; *JA 1884:2, 385-388 & 1885:2, 18-26; *Revue crit. 1884:2, 225-229, 249-253.