HABSBURG, Josef Karl Ludwig, Erzherzog von Österreich (nom-de-plume József Főherczec [Erzherzog Josef]). Bratislava 2.3.1833 — Fiume (now Rijeka) 13.6.1905. Austro-Hungarian Nobleman, Officer, and Gipsy Scholar. Son of Archduke Josef Anton Johannes (1776-1847) and Maria Dorothea von Württemberg, grandson of emperor Leopold II. After a careful education he started officer’s career serving in Bohemia, Italy (where he passed Dr.med. at Padova) and Linz. Major 1848, Lieutenant Colonel 1852, General Major 1857, Feldmarschalleutnant 1866 and General 1874. He was Cavalry General and commander-in-chief of Hungarian army (Landwehr). Exceptionally Hungarian-minded for a Habsburg. Interested in Romani in 1853-56, when he met East Slovakian gypsy recruits and noticed their linguistic difficulties. Studied first their dialect, then also other dialects. Brought gypsies from various regions to his estates to be studied in a “greenhouse”. Married 1864 Princess Clotilde of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, seven children.
Publications: main work: Románo csibákero sziklaribe. 377 pp. 1888; abridged version Zigeunergrammatik. Budapest 1902; Eredeti cigánylevelek. 1888 (Gipsy letters).
– with H. Wlislocki: A cigányokrol. 1894 (On Gipsies).
Sources: E. Kutlík-Garudo, AnzÖstAW 119, 1982, 158–174 (with photo); Ö.B.L. 3; Wikipedia with photo (more details in *Hungarian version).