HABSBURG, Josef Karl Ludwig, Erzherzog von Österreich (József Károly Lajos, nom-de-plume József Főherczec [Erzherzog Josef]). Pozsony (Bratislava) 2.3.1833 — Fiume (Rijeka) 13.6.1905. Austro-Hungarian Nobleman, Officer, and Gipsy Scholar. Son of Archduke Josef Anton Johannes (1776-1847) and Maria Dorothea of Württemberg, grandson of emperor Leopold II. After a careful education he started officer’s career serving in Bohemia, Italy (where he passed Dr.med. at Padova) and Linz. Major 1848, Lieutenant Colonel 1852, General Major 1857, Feldmarschalleutnant 1866 and General 1874. He was Cavalry General and commander-in-chief of Hungarian army (Landwehr). Exceptionally Hungarian-minded for a Habsburg. Interested in Romani in 1853-56, when he met East Slovakian gypsy recruits and noticed their linguistic difficulties. Studied first their dialect, then also other dialects. Brought gypsies from various regions to his estates to be studied in a “greenhouse”. Also interested in botany. Married 1864 Princess Clotilde of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, seven children.
Publications: Main work: Czigány nyelvtan. Románo csibákero sziklaribe. 377 pp. Budapest 1888; abridged German version Zigeunergrammatik. 160 p. Budapest 1902.
– Eredeti cigány levelek. Budapest 1888 (Gipsy letters); Háladatos cigányok, mint életmentők. Budapest 1891; Észleletek az Alcsúton letelepedett sátoros cigányokról. Budapest 1893.
– With H. Wlislocki: A cigányokról. 97 p. Budapest 1895 (On gypsies).
– Botanical publications.
Sources: E. Kutlík-Garudo, AnzÖstAW 119, 1982, 158–174 (with photo); J.C. Ludwig, Ö.B.L. 3; Wikipedia with photo (more details and photos in *Hungarian version).
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