JÄSCHKE, Heinrich August. Herrnhut 17.5.1817 — Herrnhut 24(29?).9.1883. German Missionary and Tibetan scholar. Son of a master baker in an originally Moravian family, as a talented boy won a scholarship to Niesky Pädagogium (Herrnhutian Gymnasium) in Silesia. In 1842-56 teacher at the same school. From 1856 director of the Herrnhutian missionary station at Kyelang in Lahul, West-Himalaya. After quarrels with his fellow-workers, said to be founded on his excessive modesty, he resigned his post in 1863, but remained in the country until 1868, when failing health forced him to return home. In 1859 married in Kyelang a Herrnhutian woman missionary, no children.
The scholarly work of AJ is all connected with his great project, the Tibetan translation of the Bible. He tried and achieved great familiarity with the languages, employing a Lama to teach him the classical language. In order to have the translation more easily understandable he applied Buddhist terminology. His dictionary was a pioneer work, still in use more than hundred years later. His grammar was one of the very first to take modern dialects into account.
Publications: “Über das Tibetanische Lautsystem”, MBeAW 1860, 256-278; “Über die östliche Aussprache des Tibetischen im Vergleich zu der früher behandelten westlichen”, MBeAW 1865, 441-453; “Über die Phonetik der Tibetischen Sprache”, MBeAW 1867, 148-182; “Notes on the Pronunciation of the Tibetan Language”, JASB 24, 1865, 91ff.
– a Hindustani primer for Tibetans. 1867.
– “Probe aus dem tibet. Legendenbuch: die Hunderttausend Gesänge des Milaraspa”, ZDMG 23, 1869, 543-558; from the same in Francke, Geistesleben in Tibet. 1925, 51f.
– “Lahoul, its flora and vegetable products”, Journal of the Linnaean Soc. of London, Botany 10, 1869.
– A short practical grammar of the Tibetan Language. Kyelang 1865, 2nd ed. by H. Wenzel: Tibetan Grammar. L. 1883, new ed. with Addenda by A. H. Francke, asisted by W. Simon. 8+104+57 p. B. 1929.
– Handwörterbuch der tibetischen Sprache. 697 p. Gnadau 1871.
– A Tibetan–English Dictionary with special reference to the prevailing dialects. To which is added an English–Tibetan vocabulary. 671 p. L. 1881 and edd.; A romanized Tibetan and English Dictionary. 1886.
– translated into Tibetan: New Testament 1885, The Pentateuch. 1-2.
Sources: Buckland, Dictionary; *L. Feer, JA 8:2, 1883, 314f.; G. Jäschke, N.D.B. 289f.; *J. Kolmaš, bibliography in ArO 60, 1992, 113-127; JRAS 16, 1884, Proc. xxxiiif.; *G.T. Reichelt, A.D.B. 50, 1905, 632f.; briefly D.B.E. 5, 1997, 288; Wikipedia with hpoto.
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