JETTMAR, Karl

JETTMAR, Karl Josef. Vienna 8.8.1918 — Heidelberg 28.3.2002. Austrian Anthropologist in Germany, famous Specialist of North Pakistan. Son of Rudolf J. (1869–1939), an Art Nouveau painter, and Maria Mayer, grew up in Vienna. Roman Catholic.  Began studies of history and German at Vienna in 1936, soon turned to anthropology (i.a. under Heine-Geldern). From 1940 served in army, but was wounded and thus could complete his Ph.D. 1941 at Vienna. Briefly U.S. war prisoner, then supported his family with various odd jobs, but also continued his studies. Finally, 1954, permanent position in Wiener Museum für Völkerkunde. In 1955-56 participated in the German Hindukush expedition of Ad. Friedrich. From 1958 ao. Professor at Vienna (succeeding Heine-Geldern). From 1961 ord. Professor at Mainz, from 1964 at Heidelberg. Retired in 1983. Conducted many field expeditions. Married 1943 Senta Heidrich, a physician (who then collaborated with her husband), one daughter and one son.

In his early work Jettmar often criticized the exaggerated ideas of the Vienna school, e.g. original monotheism and the linear development from hunter-gatherers through nomadism to farmers. From 1955 until mid-70s fieldwork in North-Western Pakistan and Afghanistan and now also concentrated on this area in his studies. Historical ethnology was his speciality.

Publications: Diss. Der Schmied im germanischen Raum. 1941.

– “Karasuk Culture and its south-eastern affinities”, Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities 22, 1950, 83-126; “The Altai before the Turks”, Ibid. 23, 1951, 135-223; “Zu den Anfängen der Rentierzucht”, Anthropos 47, 1952, 737-766; etc.

“Völkerkundliche Forschung im Haramoshgebiet (Gilgit-Agency)”, ZfEthnol. 83, 1958, 252-256.

Die frühen Steppenvölker. Der eurasiatische Tierstil. Entstehung und sozialer Hintergrund. 275 p. Kunst der Welt. Baden-Baden 1964; also in English 1967.

– Geschichte Mittelasiens. 6+371 p. HdO I:5:5. Leiden 1966.

– “The Middle Asiatic Heritage of Dardistan (Islamic Collective Tombs in Punyal and Their Background)”, E&W  17, 1967, 59-82; “Weinbereitung und Weinrituale im Hindukusch”, Festschrift für Helmut Petri. Kölner ethnol. Mitteilungen 5. Köln 1973, 191-205; “Westerners beyond the Great Himalayan Range, Rock Carvings and Rock Inscriptions in the Indus Valley near Chilas”, India and the West. Proceedings of a Seminar Dedicated to the Memory of H. Goetz, ed. by J. Deppert, New Delhi 1983, 159-164; “Tierstiel am Indus”, Kulturhistorische Probleme Südasiens und Zentralasiens. Beiträge zu einer Konferenz am 9. August 1983 im Wissenschaftsbereich Orientalische Archäologie der Martin-Luther-Univ. Halle-Wittenberg, hrsg. von B. Brentjes und H.-J. Peuke, Halle (Saale) 1984, 73-93; “Non-Buddhist Traditions in the Petroglyphs of the Indus Valley”, J. Schotsmans & M. Taddei (eds.), SAA 1983, I.U.O.N., Dip. di Studi Asiatici, Ser. Minor 33, Naples 1985, 750-777; and numerous further articles.

– Die Holztempel des oberen Kulutales in ihren historischen, religiösen und kunstgeschichtlichen Zusammenhängen. 144 p. 48 p. Beitr. zur Südasienforschung 2. Wb. 1974.

– Die Religionen des Hindukusch. 525 p. Die Religionen der Menschheit 4:1. Stuttgart 1975; much rev. English transl. The Religions of the Hindu Kush. Vol. 1. The Religion of the Kafirs: The Pre-Islamic Heritage of Afghan Nuristan. 172 p. Warminster 1986; also Russian transl.

– Bolor and Dardistan. 100 p. Islamabad 1980.

– With V. Thewalt: Between Gandhāra and the Silk Roads: Rock-Carvings along the Karakorum Highway; Discoveries by German-Pakistani Expeditions 1979-1984. 36 p. Mainz 1987.

– Edited with others: Antiquities of Northern Pakistan: Reports and Studies. Heidel­berg Academy for the Humanities and Sciences, Research Unit “Rock Carvings and Inscriptions along the Karakorum Highway”. 1-3. 57+157+163+215 p. ill. Mainz 1989-93-94.

– With E. Kattner: Beyond the gorges of the Indus: archaeology before excavation. 19+248 p. ill. Karachi 2002.

Sources: D.G.K. 1992; Bihl 173; U. Johansen, Z. für Ethnologie 127, 2002, 133-138 with photo; *P. Snoy (ed.), Ethnologie und Geschichte. Festschrift für K.J. Beitr. zur Südasien-Forschung 86. Wb. 1983; P. Snoy, SAA 2003. 2005, 11f. with photo; German Wikipedia.

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