TUCCI, Giuseppe

TUCCI, Giuseppe Vincenzo. Macerata 5.6.1894 — S. Polo de’ Cavalieri near Rome 5.4.1984. Italian Indologist, Sinologist and Tibetan Scholar. Professor in Rome. Born in a middle-class family, son of Oscar T. and Ermengilda Firmani. Learned Latin and Greek at school and privately some Sanskrit. Studied at Rome (originally Latin, soon Sanskrit and Avesta, also Hebrew and Chinese), graduated in 1915. Participated in the WW I (1916-18). Litt.D. 1919 Rome (under Formichi). Soon PD at Rome. In 1925-30 taught Italian, Tibetan and Chinese at the universities of Santiniketan, Dacca and Calcutta. Back in Italy, Professor of Chinese at Naples. In 1933 among founders of the Istituto italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente (IsMEO) in Rome. From 1932 Professore ord. di religioni e filosofia dell’ India e dell’ Estremo Oriente at Sapienza in Rome, retired in 1969. Active member of the Fascist Party. In 1937 visited Japan. After the war several years excluded from the university because of his fascist relations. In 1948-78 President of the reestablished IsMEO. From 1929 member of Italian Academy. In 1929-48 eight expeditions to Ladakh and Tibet, in 1950-57 seven to Nepal. In 1956-62 directed Italian excavations in Swat, in 1957 visited Afghanistan and 1959 Iran. Hon Dr. of Kolozsvâr, Delhi, Louvain, Teheran and Kathmandu.

Tucci began his career with Indo-Iranian, moved into Sinology, and became the leading Tibetologist of his time without abandoning Indology and Sinology. Early interest in Indian and Chinese philosophy led him to Buddhist philosophy and to Chinese and Tibetan sources. He was many-sided, a philologist, scholar of religion, art historian and archaeologist. In the 1950s and 60s he conducted archaeological excavations in Nepal and Swāt. Tibetan Painted Scrolls is perhaps the most famous among his many works. He trained numerous students, i.al. L. Petech and R. Gnoli. Three times married, with Rosa De Benedetto, 1927 Giulia Nuvoloni (divorce 1942) and 1971 Francesca Bonardi. In his early career and during the war active supporter of fascism and Mussolini.

Publications: Early articles on Latin epigraphy.

– “Osservazioni sul Fargard II del Vendîdad”, GSAI 26, 1913-14, 243-251; “Note sulle fonti di Kālidāsa”, RSO 9, 1921-23, 1-26; “Un altro poema di Açvaghosa: il Saundarananda”, Alle Fonti delle Religioni 1:1, 1921, 38-69.

Storia della filosofia cinese antica. 12+222 p. Bologna 1922; Apologia del Taoismo. Rome 1924.

Transl. from Chinese: Scritti di Mencio. 9+199 p. Lanciani 1921; “Le cento strofe (Çataçâstra): Testo buddh. mahâyâna trad. da cinese”, Studi e mater. 1, 1925, 1-92; Saggezza cinese. Turin 1926; Pre-Dinnâga Buddhist Texts on Logic from Chinese Sources. 30+40+32+77+89+91 p. G.O.S. 49. Baroda 1929.

–  “Linee di una storia del materialismo Indiano”, RAL Mem. 5:17, 1923, 242-310 & 6:2, 1929, 667-713.

“Un traité d’Āryadeva sur le ‘Nirvāṇa’ des hérétiques”, TP 24, 1925-26, 16-31.

– Transl. from Sanskrit: Çântideva. In cammino verso la luce. 23+117 p. Turin 1926.

Il Buddhismo. 295 p. Foligno 1926; On some aspects of the doctrines of Maitreya(nātha) and Asanga. 5+81 p. Calcutta 1930; “Animadversiones Indicae”, JASB N.S. 16, 1930, 125–160.

– “Buddhist Logic before Diṅnāga”, JRAS 1929, 451-488, 870f.

The Nyāyamukha of Dignāga. The eldest Buddhist text on logic after Chinese and Tibetan materials. 72 p. Materialien zur Kunde des Buddh. 15. Heidelberg 1930.

Edited: Commentaries on the Prajñāpāramitās. 1. Abhiṣamayālaṁkāra of Haribhadra. 61+589 p. G.O.S. 62. Baroda 1932; “The Ratnāvalī of Nāgārjuna”, JRAS 1934, 307-325; 1935, 237-252; 1936, 423-435; with V. Bhattacharya, Sthiramati’s Ṭīkā on Madhyāntavibhāga­sūtra­bhāṣya of Vasubandhu. L. 1932.

Indo-Tibetica. 1-3. Rome 1932-35; 4:1-3. Gyantse ed i suoi monasteri. 302+330 p. 397 ill. on pl.  Rome 1941; “Buddhist notes 1. A propos Avalokiteśvara”, Mél. chinois et bouddh. 9, 1948-51, 173-219.

Cronaca della missione scientifico Tucci nel Tibet occidentale. Rome 1934, English transl. Secrets of Tibet. 210 p. L. 1935; Santi e briganti nel Tibet ignoto. Diario della spedizione nel Tibet occidentale 1935. 15+190 p. Milano 1937; A Lhasa e oltre, diario della spedizione nel Tibet, 1948. 155 p. Rome 1950, English transl. To Lhasa and beyond. Rome 1956.

Ramakrishna Paramahamsa. 26 p. Rome 1936; Forme dello Spirito Asiatico. 270 p.Milano & Messina 1940; Italia e Oriente. 256 p. Milano 1949; Le grandi vie di comunicazione Europa–Asia. 188 p. Turin 1958; Storia della filosofia indiana. 64 p. Bari 1959.

Tibetan Painted Scrolls. 1-3. 798 p. 256 colour pl. 1949; Teoria e pratica del Mandala. 140 p. Rome 1949, English tr. Theory and Practice of the Mandala. 1969, also in German; The Tombs of the Tibetan Kings. 117 p. S.O.R. 1. Rome 1950; Transhimalaya. 239 p. Arch. mundi. 1973.

– Edited & transl. Tibetan folksongs from the district of Gyantse. Art. As. Suppl. 7. Ascona 1949; Tibetan Folk Songs from Gyantse and Western Tibet. Collected and transl. 2nd rev. & enlarged ed. 200 p. 18 pl. Art. As. Suppl. 22. Ascona 1966.

Tra giungle e pagode. Rome 1953, Journey to Mustang in 1952. Tr. from Italian by D. Fussell. 16+85 p. 10 pl. Kathmandu 1977; Nepal: alla scoperta dei Malla. 1960, Nepal: the discovery of the Malla. Transl. by L. Edwards. 96 p. 88 pl. L. 1962.

Minor Buddhist Texts. 1-3. 598 p. S.O.R. 9. Roma 1956-58-71.

– Preliminary report on two scientific expeditions in Nepal. 153 p. 61 pl. Materials for the Study of Nepalese history and culture 1. S.O.R. 10. Rome 1956.

Edited: Le Civilità dell’ Oriente. 1-4. 27+1310, 19+1171, 17+1263, 17+1397 p. Rome 1956-62.

Rati-līlā, an Interpretation of Tantric Imagery of the Temples of Nepal. 152 p. 1958, German transl. 1969, also in French (on the erotic art of Nepal).

– “Oriental Notes II. An image of Devi discovered in Swat and some connected problems”, E&W 14, 1963, 146-182; “On Swāt. The Dards and Connected Problems”, E&W 27, 1977, 9-103; On Swāt: Historical and Archaeological Problems. Texts selected by D. Faccenna and ed. by P. Callieri & A. Filigenzi. 20+348 p. Rome 1997.

– Tibet. Paese delle Nevi. Novara 1967, Tibet. Land of Snows. Transl. by J. E. Stapleton Driver. 216 p. N.Y. 1967, also in French.

With W. Heissig: Die Religionen Tibets und der Mongolei. 7+448 p. Die Relig. der Menschheit 20. St. 1970 (Tibet by Tucci, 3-291); Le religioni del Tibet. 310 p. Rome 1976.

– Edited & transl. Deb-t’er dmar-po gsar-ma. Tibetan chronicles by bSod nams grags pa. 1-2. Rome 1971.

Translated: Il libro Tibetano dei morti. 235 p. Classici delle religioni. Torino 1972.

Opera minora. 1-2. 641 p. Studi Orientali 6. Rome 1971.

Indo-Tibetica. Translated into English and ed. by Lokesh Chandra. 4 vols. in 7 parts. Satapitaka Series 347-353. Delhi 1988-89.

Sources: *G. Benavides, “G.T., or Buddhology in the Age of Fascism”, D.S. Lopez Jr., Curators of the Buddha. The Study of Buddhism under Colonialism. Chicago 1995, 161-196; *M. Eliade, Hist. of Rel. 24, 1984-85, 157-159; *K. Enoki, Tōhōgaku 68, 136-154 (in Japanese, also in Enoki’s Collected Works 11, 1994, 252-290); E. Garzilli, ”G.T., le Marche e l’Oriente”, Identit Sibillina. Arte cultura e ambiente fra Marche e Umbria 2006:2, 32-41 (in Italian and English, with several photos); *Gh. Gnoli, L. Petech & F. Scialpi, E&W 34, 1984, 1-21 and bibliogr. 23-42; *L. Petech, JIABS 7, 1984, 137-142 and in Spanish tr., REB 11, 1996, 78-84; L. Petech, “Ippolito Desideri, Alexander Csoma de Kőrös, G.T.”, AOHu 43, 1989, 155-161; *F. Scialpi, “Prof. G.T.”, IT 31, 2005, 263-271; M. Taddei, AION 44, 1984, 699-704; G. Uray, AOHu 39, 1985, 361-365; Bio-bibliogr. de 134 Savants. 1979, 517-519; NAA 1985:1, 213f.; Wikipedia with photo and further references.

Gururājamañjarika. 1969; G.T. Mem. Vol. 1-3. 198?; *E. Garzilli, L’esploratore del Duce. Le avventure di G.T. e la politica italiana in Oriente da Mussolini a Andreotti. Rome & Milano 2012; *R. Gnoli, Ricordo di G.T. 79 p. S.O.R. 55. R. 1985 (with bibliography); *G.T. nel centenario della nascita. 157 p. Conferenze IsMEO 8. R. 1995; *Le Marche e l’Oriente; una tradizione ininterrotta da Matteo Ricci a Giuseppe Tucci. R. 1998 (with R. Gnoli, “G.T. e l’India”, 287-295; L. Lanciotti, “G.T. e l’Estremo Oriente”, 297-303; *B. Melasecchi (ed.), G.T. Nel centenario della nascita. Rome 1994; R.N. Prats, “G.T. e il Tibet”, 305-315).

Photos e.g. in Tucci Memorial Vol. 1, 1985, Peiris, E & W 34.

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